About the film
Memorable and noteworthy from this chamber play is the fact that the four leading actors appear in special takes, one at a time, commenting upon their characters' mental state, an interview style Bergman probably borrowed from Godard's La Chinoise. Interrogator is Bergman himself. His first question is addressed to the film's leading actor, von Sydow, in the fourth take:
'Max, as an actor, what is your personal view of Andreas Winkelman?'
Max von Sydow: 'He is awfully difficult in one way, because he has tried to hide from the world around him. His unhappy marriage and his legal worries have driven him to a blind alley where he tries to conceal his identity. He tries to wipe out his means of expression, so that, without being aware of it that hiding place has become a prison. The hard thing to me is to try and express a lack of expression.'
Sources of inspiration
Writing in Images: My Life in Film:
The four leading characters in the film use Johan (Erik Hell) as a accomplice in their game. There exists a parallel between Johan and the fisherman Jonas in Winter Light. Both become victims of the characters' paralysis and inability to engage in human emotional experience. My philosophy (even today) is that there exists an evil – and humans are the only animals to possess it. An evil that is irrational and not bound by low. Cosmic. Causeless. Nothing frightens people more than incomprehesible, unexplainable evil.
Shooting the film
The film was shot on Fårö during the autumn of 1968. Bergman writing in Images:
The filming of The passion of Anna took forty-five days and was quite an ordeal. The screenplay had been written in a white heat. It was more a description of a series of moods than a traditional, dramatic film sequence. Ordinarily, I solved any anticipated technical problems immediately in the writing stage. But here I chose to deal with the problems during filming. To some extent this decision was made because of a lack of time, but mostly I felt a need to challenge myself.
The passion of Anna was also the first true color film Sven Nykvist and I did together. In All these Women we had filmed in color according to the established rules. This time we wanted to make a film in color as it had never been done before. Contrary to our usual collaborative experiences, we found ourselves in endless conflicts. My intestinal ulcer acted up, and Sven had vertigo. Our ambition was to make a black-and-white film in color, with certain hues emphasized in a strictly defined color scale. It turned out to be difficult. The color negative exposed slowly and demanded a totally different lighting than it would today. The poor result of our efforts confused us, and, regretfully, we argued often.
It was also 1968. The seeds of rebellion from that year began to reach even the crew at Fårö. Sven had an assistent photographer with whom we had worked on several earlier films. He was a short man with round glasses, like a militar serviceman. Nobody had been more diligent and industrious than he. Now he was transformed into an active agitator. He called us dictator and that all artistic decisions should be made by the whole crew. I declared that those who did not like our way of working could return home next day with their salaries intact. I was not going to change my method and schedule of shooting and did not intent to accept artistic decisions from the crew. Nobody wanted to go home. I saw to it that our agitator was assigned to ohers duties, and the filming of The Passion of Anna continued without any futher protest meetings. The filming, however, became one of the worst I have ever experienced, equal to This can't happen here, Winter Light, and The Touch.
United Artists was the company responsible for international distribution of The Passion of Anna. The Swedish newspaper Expressen was far from happy with the company's marketing: 'Despite their new style of language, the same old clichés are being trotted out: A film from Sweden that nation of suicidal sex addicts who find the temperature cold outside but all the more warm in bed.'
Screened outside the competition at the 1970 Cannes Film Festival, the film was very positively received by the French critics. In April that year Bergman had been awarded a special prize by the catholic jury at the International Film Weeks in Valladolid, Spain, an event to showcase films of special religious or universal human interest. He also received an award for screenwriting.
The Passion of Anna (Swedish: En passion – "A passion") is a 1969 Swedish drama film written and directed by Ingmar Bergman, who was awarded Best Director at the 1970 National Society of Film Critics Awards for the film.
The audience is introduced to Andreas Winkelman, a man living alone and emotionally desolate after the recent demise of his marriage. He meets Anna, who is grieving the recent deaths of her husband and son. She uses a cane as a result of the car crash that killed them. While Anna uses Andreas' phone, he listens to her conversation, after which she departs visibly distraught. Anna has left her handbag behind and Andreas searches it, finding and reading a letter from her husband that will later prove she is deceptive.
Andreas is friends with a married couple, Eva and Elis (mutual friends of Anna) who are also in the midst of psychological turmoil. Elis is an amateur photographer who organizes his work based on emotion. Eva feels Elis has grown tired of her and has problems sleeping. One night while Elis is away, Eva visits Andreas, as she is bored and lonely. They listen to music and drink wine, which makes them drowsy, and finally Eva sleeps for several hours. When she wakes up, they have sex. Afterward, she explains that during her only pregnancy years ago, she went to the hospital to treat her insomnia. The medicine they gave her helped her condition but killed the child. She conveys that it allowed her and Elis to share a moment of emotional affinity.
Andreas visits Elis whom he promised could photograph him. Elis leaves the room for a moment and Eva enters. In their conversation, Eva reveals that Anna has moved in with Andreas, and though she is not displeased (as she likes both of them), she warns him to be wary of Anna. Elis enters the room; when Eva asks him why he looks angry, he says he only gets angry at human trifles (alluding to the affair).
Their relationship is not passionate, but Andreas and Anna start off relatively content. Anna appears zealous in her faith and steadfast in her search for truth, but gradually her delusions surface-reinforced by what Andreas read in the letter. For his part, Andreas is unable to overcome his feelings of deep humiliation about himself and remains disconnected, further dooming the relationship with Anna, as he prefers solitude and freedom to companionship.
Throughout the film, an unknown person among the island community commits acts of animal cruelty, hanging a dog and violently killing cattle. A friend of Andreas is wrongly accused of these crimes, leading the community to threaten and beat him, catalyzing his suicide. Within a few days of the friend's death, Anna and Andreas have a physical fight during which they reveal their strong distaste for each other. Afterwards, Anna lies in bed while Andreas follows two firetrucks that passed his home. They were headed to a large barn fire. When Andreas arrives, he is told that the unknown man who is the true culprit of the animal cruelty covered a barn full of animals in gasoline and lit it on fire, locking the animals in. It is obvious to the community that Andreas' friend was unjustly abused and committed suicide because of flimsy human suspicion, therefore, chances for healing are lost.
Anna shows up at the fire in her car. Andreas gets in. As they drive down the road beside the sea, Andreas explains that he desires his solitude again and that their parting will not be difficult as neither one truly loved the other. He also reveals that he knows the truth about her husband. Anna begins to speed the car while he talks. He asks if she is going to kill him like she killed her husband and they fight over the wheel. Eventually he stops the car in the flat ground beside the road. He tells her she is out of her mind. Anna drives away while Andreas paces back and forth on the side of the road.
The film has its origins in Bergman's 1968 film Shame, also starring Ullmann and Von Sydow. After shooting of Shame completed, Fårö's environmental regulations required the house built for the film be burned, but Bergman had developed an attachment to its appearance and saved it by claiming there were plans to use it in another film. He began writing The Passion of Anna, and with Von Sydow and Ullmann still contracted to work with him, envisioned The Passion of Anna as "virtually a sequel."
Author Jerry Vermilye wrote that in exploring "the thread of violence intruding on ordinary lives," Hour of the Wolf (1968), Shame and The Passion of Anna represent a trilogy. Author Amir Cohen-Shalev concurred the films form a trilogy. Cohen-Shalev wrote that, like Persona and Shame, The Passion of Anna follows an "artist as fugitive" theme touching on issues of guilt and self-hatred.
On Rotten Tomatoes, The Passion of Anna garnered 100% approval among 12 critics.Vincent Canby argued that "it does seem designed more for the indefatigable Bergman cryptologists (of which I am not one) than for interested, but uncommitted filmgoers", but praised its lead actors' performances and wrote that "Bergman gives each of them extraordinary moments of cinematic truth, monologues of sustained richness and drama".
The film is not considered one of Bergman's greatest works, but retrospective evaluations are still positive. Sam Jordison wrote for Film4, "While it lacks the lightness of touch and smooth flow that distinguishes Bergman at his finest, this is still a powerful, profound work of art."
- ^"Past Awards". National Society of Film Critics. Retrieved 9 June 2017.
- ^ abFrank Gado, The Passion of Ingmar Bergman, Duke University Press, 1986, p. 377.
- ^Jerry Vermilye, Ingmar Bergman: His Life and Films, McFarland & Company, Inc., 2002, p. 133.
- ^ abAmir Cohen-Shalev, Both Worlds at Once: Art in Old Age, University Press of America, 2002, p. 138.
- ^"The Passion of Anna (En Passion) (1970)". Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved January 15, 2017.
- ^Canby, Vincent (May 29, 1970). "Movie Review - THE PASSION OF ANNA". Retrieved January 15, 2017.
- ^Jordison, Sam Channel Four Television Corporation. "En Passion". Retrieved January 15, 2017.