...Case Analysis Outline Viewpoint Any person who is a decision maker or who is cap[able of recommending a solution as mentioned in the case or any consultant hired to recommend a solution. Time Context Generally, it delineates the take-off point of the analysis. I. Problem Statement This defines the perceived problem presented in the case and which is the object of the analysis. It may be presented in a declarative form or in the form of a question. II. Statement of the Objective These are the goals which the case analysis hopes to achieve. They basically satisfy the test of SMART (Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Realistic and Time-bound). III. Areas of Consideration Defines the internal and external environment of the company discernible in the case. The expected output of discussion should be the Strength and Weaknesses (Internal Environment) and Opportunities and Threats (External Environment) for each ACA. IV. Assumptions Defines other factors affecting the company which may not have been specifically stated in the case but need to be assumed to better understand the case and limit or enhance the analysis. V. Alternative Courses of Action These are the possible solutions to the problem. Each must achieve the objectives. VI. Analysis Each ACA should be discussed in the......
Words: 554 - Pages: 3
Case Method Outline
...CASE ANALYSIS A case analysis method of study provides experiential education—learning by doing. Therefore, the amount of learning students receive from an individual case is directly related to the amount of work they put into it. A major goal of the use of cases is to allow students to gain experience in problem solving. Cases help students learn to: • develop an understanding of problems, • learn how to dissect the various factors relevant to a problem, • learn how to think creatively about solutions to a problem, • learn to critically and thoroughly evaluate alternative solutions, • learn how to make a final decision—one that you are willing to move forward with and one that you feel confident in supporting. Through the use of cases, students learn that the most obvious solution is not always the best solution. The only way to discover a “best” solution is to consider all (the emphasis here is on the ALL) possible alternatives, to identify the potential positive and negative outcomes for all alternatives possible, and then to select which alternative course of action seems best, based on their analysis, and marketing theory, concepts, and principles. Students need to understand the basic factual and theoretical foundations for marketing......
Words: 1255 - Pages: 6
Comprehensive Analysis Outline and Presentation
... students will ultimately suffer and additional consequences will occur. The Miami school district goals are to produce quality education and also have great and long lasting relationships with the students and parents. The school district will take a bilateral approach to the negotiation by having the parents involved (Lewicki, Saunders, & Barry, 2006). The school district must make it clear to the parents that the reason behind the rezoning decision is to maintain a quality school life for the students, without overcrowding the classrooms. Ultimately, ensuring a quality of education for students should remain the top priority. An integrative strategy allows both the stakeholders and school district the opportunity to present their cases while seeking a solution that everyone can appreciate and understand. Though there will be those on both sides that feel that they have come out on the losing end of the negotiation, proper planning and research by both parties will make the process smoother for everyone. The stakeholders are everyone involved the Teachers because they give instructional education, by keeping up the standards for all students. The teachers are first responders in the identification of students who may need special and additional help. Teachers also join in on professional programs that will help them work with students and their families that are below in work performance. Teachers Unions are stake holders because they collaborate with districts for......
Words: 1471 - Pages: 6
Case Analysis Outline
...Case Analysis Outline Viewpoint Any person who is a decision maker or who is cap[able of recommending a solution as mentioned in the case or any consultant hired to recommend a solution. Time Context Generally, it delineates the take-off point of the analysis. I. Problem Statement This defines the perceived problem presented in the case and which is the object of the analysis. It may be presented in a declarative form or in the form of a question. II. Statement of the Objective These are the goals which the case analysis hopes to achieve. They basically satisfy the test of SMART (Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Realistic and Time-bound). III. Areas of Consideration Defines the internal and external environment of the company discernible in the case. The expected output of discussion should be the Strength and Weaknesses (Internal Environment) and Opportunities and Threats (External Environment) for each ACA. IV. Assumptions Defines other factors affecting the company which may not have been specifically stated in the case but need to be assumed to better understand the case and limit or enhance the analysis. V. Alternative Courses of Action These are the possible solutions to the problem. Each must achieve the objectives. VI. Analysis Each ACA should be discussed in......
Words: 733 - Pages: 3
Case Outline-Hewlett Packard
...Assessment 2 – Outline : ‘The Hewlett Packard Way” Case Study: I chose the ‘Hewlett Packard way’ as last year I spent the whole year as Store manager in a retail position. The first half of the year I managed for a company with a reputation for high staff turnover and in the second half I managed for a company with similar values to Hewlett Packard. Not only were staff members more loyal in the second company but the level of self-driven motivation was second to none. I am passionate about this management style. Contemporary management Issues in relation to this article Issue: HP consistently puts principles derived from Theory Y into practice taking a completely soft model of Human Resource Management approach. However more recently HP have been experiencing problems because of a downturn in the economy and needs to reduce costs. Should HP stick with this approach through this rough patch though more costly? The Company: Hewlett Packard company or HP is a public, manufacturing and professional services sector industry founded in 1939 by William Hewlett and David Packard. It provides It provides computer hardware/software and IT services to consumers, small- and medium-sized businesse and large enterprises. Founders Bill and Dave established a philosophy of management called the ‘HP way’ which is 100% people orientated built on recognition of achievements. Key management Issues: The problem with a purely Theory Y based approach to management saves......
Words: 785 - Pages: 4
Words: 443 - Pages: 2
Diet Analysis Outline
...Diet Analysis Paper – 100 points Your Paper will be judged on the following: Paper structure: correct grammar, complete sentences, paragraphs, no abbreviations. Calorie intake: acknowledgment of calorie intake, normal, high or low. Identify any changes in diet that may need to be made Dietary log: complete log of 3 days of food and fluid intake. Actual serving sizes noted 3 Day Average graphs analysis (Bar Graph Report): Nutrient Charts with inclusion of 3 day averages of nutrient intake MyPlate Report: acknowledgment of appropriate or inappropriate servings of all food categories. Indication of any changes to be made Carbohydrate intake: acknowledgment of carbohydrate intake, normal, high or low. Identify any changes in diet that may need to be made. Assessment of adequacy of dietary fiber intake. Fat intake acknowledgment of fat intake, normal, high or low. Identify any changes in diet that may need to be made. Saturated fat and cholesterol intake: acknowledgment of saturated fat and cholesterol intake, normal, high or low. Identify any changes in diet that may need to be made. Protein intake: acknowledgment of protein intake, normal, high or low. Identify any changes in diet that may need to be made. Vitamin intake: acknowledgment of adequacy of vitamins. Identify any vitamin intake that is abnormal, particularly deficiencies. Identify any changes in diet that may need to be made. Mineral intake: acknowledgment of adequacy of minerals. Identify any mineral......
Words: 266 - Pages: 2
Environment Analysis Outline
...Environmental Analysis Outline Team A Latoya Williams, Adriana Ortiz, Norma Benson, Daniela Flores, Imran Ashraf, Carlos Garcia SCI/256 May 4, 2015 Zensiwe Bryant Team A has decided to present and discuss our topic on California’s Drought. For the past 4 years California has experienced and heavy drought causing Urban water restrictions, and introducing fines and penalties for the miss use of water. This environmental concern has effect everyday life in California. Team A will discuss and elaborate on the issues of surrounding water waste, water preservation, and how California biggest water waste and income is at high risk. 1. Introduction 2. California Agriculture: Latoya Williams A. How much Agriculture is California responsible for? B. How much water is required to keep California Agriculture running? C. California’s yearly profit from Agriculture. 3. Growing Demands: Norma Benson A. California vs United State population B. Healthy lifestyle movement causing growing demands. 4. California Urban Use: Adriana Ortiz A. Who waste the most water? Urban vs Agriculture B. Dehydration in our front lawns comes with fines? 5. Dessert Landscape is The Future: Daniela Flores A. California Program to convert urban communities to desert landscapes. B. Who paying for it? 6. Large Companies Creating a Movement: Imran Ashraf A. How being responsible can create a profit and good image. B. Do companies get......
Words: 270 - Pages: 2
Cases Analysis Outline Steps
...CASES ANALYSIS OUTLINE STEPS If all of the objectives of the case analysis method are to be realized, an organizational structure for the compilation, analysis, and presentation of case analyses should also be considered. Without this structure, integral parts of the case analysis may be ignored, and the multi-purpose nature of the course defeated. Such a structure would provide the inclusion of the following: 1. Statement of the major problem – the essence of the case, the point beyond which one can no longer find a broader, more pervasive or underlying issue. 2. Outline of minor problems – with facts and reasons. A hierarchical order of importance for the sequencing of these minor problems will be discussed following these steps. 3. Existing major policy issues – if any. This section will develop the ability to discriminate between goals, strategies, polices, programs, procedures, and rules by requiring a delineation of those policy issues which require formulation, administration, or revision. 4. Major rejected alternative solutions – with facts and reasons. This insures an adequate search for alternatives, as opposed to superficial analyses that lead to 5. Recommended solutions – with reasons. These solutions should embrace and resolve all major and minor problems delineated in steps 1 and 2. 6. Policy recommendations: This step will require the completion of the goals cited in step number 3. 7. Programmed implementation of......
Words: 263 - Pages: 2
Fil Analysis Example Outline
...APPENDIX Writing a Film Analysis Films are made to be seen and heard, to appeal to our visual and aural senses. Like any art form, however, ﬁlms are also meant to be felt and understood, to appeal to our emotions and minds. One of the best ways to determine whether a ﬁlm has succeeded in any or all of these goals is to analyze the elements that make up the whole work. To write an analysis of a ﬁlm, you must study the ﬁlm carefully. Your critical analysis should be derived from your personal encounter with the ﬁlm, not from published criticism. Access to a videocassette recorder or DVD player is essential if you are going to perform a critical analysis of any depth. It is not enough to like or dislike the movie; you must determine why it succeeds or fails in reaching out and encompassing the viewer. The ﬁrst step is to view the ﬁlm in its entirety. From this viewing you can get an initial reaction to the many parts of the ﬁlm that you will have to explore in more depth. When you ﬁrst view the ﬁlm, it is best not to try to take notes or separate the parts of the ﬁlm; you should be familiar with the textbook in order to know what to look for. After you have formulated a thesis and have begun the process of supporting that thesis, you should view the ﬁlm at least once more in its entirety and two or three times in segments in order to review scenes of major importance. The thesis statement is the element around which to structure your analysis. Because the......
Words: 9329 - Pages: 38
...Presentation Outline The Joy Luck Club: Culture Clash and Identities I/ Introduction to The Joy Luck Club * About 4 mother-daughter (Lindo - Waverly, Ying Ying - Lena, An mei - Rose, Suyuan - June) duos living in America * 4 mothers were immigrants from China with tragic past * 4 daughters are American born and raised * A movie with many layers of intercultural and intergenerational communication (miscommunication) between mothers and daughters, as well as the daughters’ struggle with their cultural identities II/ Relevant literature and intercultural communication term * High context/ Low context Cultures * Collectivism / Individualism * Cultural Identity III/ Language barriers Even though the mothers speak understandable English, there are differences between the mothers’ English (alternative version of English with different accents and dialects) and the daughters’ English (American Standard English) Analysis: Analyses scenes where the differences are prominent Ex: [The title of the movie] The word “Joy Luck” does not exist in English. It is a poor, fractures version of English [Clip 01: The opening sequence (family/ friend gatherings)] Even though they are both speaking English, when spoken in groups (of mothers and of daughters), the languages used in each group seem different => Analyze differences in grammars, vocabulary and accents IV/ Communication style * High/Low Context China (high context) vs US (high......
Words: 560 - Pages: 3
...CASE STUDY 1 Acute coronary syndrome Patrick Gallagher Case outline Peter Brown is a 58-year-old gentleman who has experienced an episode of crushing central chest pain while at work. Peter works as a taxi driver and a colleague has taken him to the Accident and Emergency Department. On admission, Peter is sweaty, clammy, nauseated and short of breath. He is complaining of chest pain radiating to his left arm. This is Peter’s ﬁrst presentation to hospital and he has no relevant past medical history. Peter smokes approximately 20–30 cigarettes per day and takes alcohol at weekends only. Peter is anxious and is concerned that his wife and children are informed. He also states his father died suddenly following a heart attack a number of years ago. Peter is immediately triaged and taken to the resuscitation room. You are the receiving nurse. Observations on admission include: Respiratory rate: 18 breaths per minute Oxygen saturations: 95% Blood pressure: 150/90 mmHg Pulse: 94 beats per minute Temperature: 37ºC. On admission to hospital an electrocardiograph (ECG) has been undertaken. Peter has been diagnosed with an anterior ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (anterior STEMI). Blood samples have also been drawn for urea and electrolytes (U&E), full blood picture (FBP) and highly sensitive troponin T. 1 Discuss Peter’s immediate problems and explain these using your knowledge of pathophysiology. A On admission to Accident and......
Words: 3270 - Pages: 14
...Case Analysis Case: BONIFACIO SAVINGS AND LOANS ASSOCIATION The Bonifacio Savings and Loan Association (BSLA) in its consultative meeting for the year decided to embark on a one year deposit campaign program. Dubbed as BSLA’s “Employee Motivation Program (EMP)”, the deposit campaign is aimed to increase deposit levels which was BSLA’s traditional source of funds. Mr. Danilo Lagman, VP for operations, was chosen as overall program coordinator. After a month of preparation, Mr. Lagman and his staff is ready to launch the EMP. Under the guidelines, bank officers and employees were given account credits for every account turn in. Points were based on the operating balance and their average balances thereafter. The participants were divided into teams, with one branch/division representing one team. To monitor progress of the EMP, solicited clients surrendered introductory cards given to them by the EMP participants. Passbook/deposits certificates were then marked with the EMP logo. As an added incentive, aside from individual bonuses specific credit levels reached, special bonuses were given to teams if group targets were met. Personal and team award credits earned were summarized and distributed at the end of each month within the deposit campaign period. The more award credits earned, the more expensive the merchandise that can be redeemed. The list of prizes included calculators, watches, living room, and microwave ovens, and others. Mr. Panganiban head of the......
Words: 1870 - Pages: 8
Case Outline of Jetblue
...Case Outline of JetBlue Airways Corporation I. Problem: The main problem facing JetBlue Airways Corporation is: how to maintain low-costs structure and continue enlarging its market share in the competitive airline industry with increasing fuel costs. II. Strategic Considerations A. Industry Analysis 1. History a). American aviation pioneers attempted to start airlines using airships in the mid-19th industry. b). Aktiengesellschaft was world’s first airline which was founded in November 16, 1909 with the government assistance, and operated airships manufactured by Zeppelin Corporation. c). Tony Jannus conducted the United States’ first scheduled commercial flight on January 1914. d). In 1918, the United States Postal Service won the financial support from Congress to begin air mail service. e). In 1925, Stout Aircraft Company began to construct Ford Trimotor with 12-passenger capacity which became the first successful American airliner. f). At the same time, Pan American World Airways created an air network that linked America to the world. g). At the end of twenty century, a new style of cost airline appeared, offering a no-frills product at a lower price. The representative low-cost carriers are Southwest Airlines, JetBlue and AirTran Airways. h). The September 11th terrorist attacks resulted the airline industry bailout which lost $30 billion with......
Words: 2121 - Pages: 9
Comprehenive Analysis Outline
...Comprehensive Analysis Outline Team A: Jaime Borgarin, Julian Contreras, Ibeth Sanchez MGT/448 Global Buisness Strategies May 11, 2012 Professor Quinton Murphy I. Region Analysis A. Regional Alliances and Economic Integration 1. NAFTA 2. United States B. Physical Environment and its Affect on Trade 1. Close Proximity to the U.S. 2. Access to Oceans C. Political Stability 1. Authoritarian Law 2. Democratic Desires D. Economic Conditions 1. Weak Economy 2. Weak Financial Markets E. Finance Options Available 1. Foreign Owned Banks F. Social Health and Environmental Conditions 1. Little Regulation 2. Pollution G. Terrorism Threats 1. Lack of Terrorism 2. High Rate of Violent Crimes 3. Drug Trafficking II. Country Analysis A. Political stability 1. Relatively low geopolitical and domestic political risks in Mexico will increase over the long-term. 2. The war on terrorism has already tightened US border security and immigration rules, opening an important social safety valve for Mexico. 3. Hardening US counter-drug policy in Mexico could heighten already high social tensions. 4. Domestic political risk will increase by......
Words: 645 - Pages: 3
The purpose of a paper in the social sciences designed around a case study is to thoroughly investigate a subject of analysis in order to reveal a new understanding about the research problem and, in so doing, contributing new knowledge to what is already known from previous studies. In general, the structure of a case study research paper is not all that different from a standard college-level research paper. However, there are subtle differences you should be aware of. Here are the key elements to organizing and writing a case study research paper.
As with any research paper, your introduction should serve as a roadmap for your readers to ascertain the scope and purpose of your study. The introduction to a case study research paper, however, should not only describe the research problem and its significance, but you should also succinctly describe why the case is being used and how it relates to addressing the problem. The two elements should be linked. With this in mind, a good introduction answers these four questions:
- What was I studying? Describe the research problem and describe the subject of analysis you have chosen to address the problem. Explain how they are linked and what elements of the case will help to expand knowledge and understanding about the problem.
- Why was this topic important to investigate? Describe the significance of the research problem and state why a case study design and the subject of analysis that the paper is designed around is appropriate in addressing the problem.
- What did we know about this topic before I did this study? Provide background that helps lead the reader into the more in-depth literature review to follow. If applicable, summarize prior case study research applied to the research problem and why it fails to adequately address the research problem. Describe why your case will be useful. If no prior case studies have been used to address the research problem, explain why you have selected this subject of analysis.
- How will this study advance new knowledge or new ways of understanding? Explain why your case study will be suitable in helping to expand knowledge and understanding about the research problem.
Each of these questions should be addressed in no more than a few paragraphs. Exceptions to this can be when you are addressing a complex research problem or subject of analysis that requires more in-depth background information.
II. Literature Review
The literature review for a case study research paper is generally structured the same as it is for any college-level research paper. The difference, however, is that the literature review is focused on providing background information and enabling historical interpretation of the subject of analysis in relation to the research problem the case is intended to address. This includes synthesizing studies that help to:
- Place relevant works in the context of their contribution to understanding the case study being investigated. This would include summarizing studies that have used a similar subject of analysis to investigate the research problem. If there is literature using the same or a very similar case to study, you need to explain why duplicating past research is important [e.g., conditions have changed; prior studies were conducted long ago, etc.].
- Describe the relationship each work has to the others under consideration that informs the reader why this case is applicable. Your literature review should include a description of any works that support using the case to study the research problem and the underlying research questions.
- Identify new ways to interpret prior research using the case study. If applicable, review any research that has examined the research problem using a different research design. Explain how your case study design may reveal new knowledge or a new perspective or that can redirect research in an important new direction.
- Resolve conflicts amongst seemingly contradictory previous studies. This refers to synthesizing any literature that points to unresolved issues of concern about the research problem and describing how the subject of analysis that forms the case study can help resolve these existing contradictions.
- Point the way in fulfilling a need for additional research. Your review should examine any literature that lays a foundation for understanding why your case study design and the subject of analysis around which you have designed your study may reveal a new way of approaching the research problem or offer a perspective that points to the need for additional research.
- Expose any gaps that exist in the literature that the case study could help to fill. Summarize any literature that not only shows how your subject of analysis contributes to understanding the research problem, but how your case contributes to a new way of understanding the problem that prior research has failed to do.
- Locate your own research within the context of existing literature [very important!]. Collectively, your literature review should always place your case study within the larger domain of prior research about the problem. The overarching purpose of reviewing pertinent literature in a case study paper is to demonstrate that you have thoroughly identified and synthesized prior studies in the context of explaining the relevance of the case in addressing the research problem.
In this section, you explain why you selected a particular subject of analysis to study and the strategy you used to identify and ultimately decide that your case was appropriate in addressing the research problem. The way you describe the methods used varies depending on the type of subject of analysis that frames your case study.
If your subject of analysis is an incident or event. In the social and behavioral sciences, the event or incident that represents the case to be studied is usually bounded by time and place, with a clear beginning and end and with an identifiable location or position relative to its surroundings. The subject of analysis can be of a rare or critical event or focus on a typical or regular event. The purpose of studying a rare event is to illuminate new ways of thinking about the broader research problem or to test a hypothesis. Critical incident case studies must describe the method by which you identified the event and explain the process by which you determined the validity of this case to inform broader perspectives about the research problem or to reveal new findings. However, the event does not have to be a rare or uniquely significant to support new thinking about the research problem or to challenge an existing hypothesis. For example, Walo, Bull, and Breen conducted a case study to identify and evaluate the direct and indirect economic benefits and costs of a local sports event in the City of Lismore, New South Wales, Australia. The purpose of their study was to provide new insights from measuring the impact of a typical local sports event that prior studies could not measure well because they focused on large "mega-events." Whether the event is rare or not, the methods section should include an explanation of the following characteristics of the event: when did it take place; what were the underlying circumstances leading to the event; what were the consequences of the event
If your subject of analysis is a person. Explain why you selected this particular individual to be studied and describe what experience he or she has had that provides an opportunity to advance new understandings about the research problem. Mention any background about this person which might help the reader understand the significance of his/her experiences that make them worthy of study. This includes describing the relationships this person has had with other people, institutions, and/or events that support using him or her as the subject for a case study research paper. It is particularly important to differentiate the person as the subject of analysis from others and to succinctly explain how the person relates to examining the research problem.
If your subject of analysis is a place. In general, a case study that investigates a place suggests a subject of analysis that is unique or special in some way and that this uniqueness can be used to build new understanding or knowledge about the research problem. A case study of a place must not only describe its various attributes relevant to the research problem [e.g., physical, social, cultural, economic, political, etc.], but you must state the method by which you determined that this place will illuminate new understandings about the research problem. It is also important to articulate why a particular place as the case for study is being used if similar places also exist [i.e., if you are studying patterns of homeless encampments of veterans in open spaces, why study Echo Park in Los Angeles rather than Griffith Park?] and, if applicable, what type of human activity involving this place makes it a good choice to study [prior research reveals Echo Park has more homeless veterans].
If your subject of analysis is a phenomenon. A phenomenon refers to a fact, occurrence, or circumstance that can be studied or observed but with the cause or explanation to be in question. In this sense, a phenomenon that forms your subject of analysis can encompass anything that can be observed or presumed to exist but is not fully understood. In the social and behavioral sciences, the case usually focuses on human interaction within a complex physical, social, economic, cultural, or political system. For example, the phenomenon could be the observation that many vehicles used by ISIS fighters are small trucks with English language advertisements on them. The research problem could be that ISIS fighters are difficult to combat because they are highly mobile. The research questions could be how and by what means are these vehicles used by ISIS being supplied to the militants and how might supply lines to these vehicles be cut? How might knowing the suppliers of these trucks from overseas reveal larger networks of collaborators and financial support? A case study of a phenomenon most often encompasses an in-depth analysis of a cause and effect that is grounded in an interactive relationship between people and their environment in some way.
NOTE: Evidence that supports the method by which you identified and chose your subject of analysis should be linked to the findings from the literature review. Be sure to cite any prior studies that helped you determine that the case you chose was appropriate for investigating the research problem.
The main elements of your discussion section are generally the same as any research paper, but centered around interpreting and drawing conclusions about the key findings from your case study. Note that a general social sciences research paper may contain a separate section to report findings. However, in a paper designed around a case study, it is more common to combine a description of the findings with the discussion about their implications. The objectives of your discussion section should include the following:
Reiterate the Research Problem/State the Major Findings
Briefly reiterate the research problem you are investigating and explain why the subject of analysis around which you designed the case study were used. You should then describe the findings revealed from your study of the case using direct, declarative, and succinct proclamation of the study results. Highlight any findings that were unexpected or especially profound.
Explain the Meaning of the Findings and Why They are Important
Systematically explain the meaning of your case study findings and why you believe they are important. Begin this part of the section by repeating what you consider to be your most important or surprising finding first, then systematically review each finding. Be sure to thoroughly extrapolate what your analysis of the case can tell the reader about situations or conditions beyond the actual case that was studied while, at the same time, being careful not to misconstrue or conflate a finding that undermines the external validity of your conclusions.
Relate the Findings to Similar Studies
No study in the social sciences is so novel or possesses such a restricted focus that it has absolutely no relation to previously published research. The discussion section should relate your case study results to those found in other studies, particularly if questions raised from prior studies served as the motivation for choosing your subject of analysis. This is important because comparing and contrasting the findings of other studies helps to support the overall importance of your results and it highlights how and in what ways your case study design and the subject of analysis differs from prior research about the topic.
Consider Alternative Explanations of the Findings
It is important to remember that the purpose of social science research is to discover and not to prove. When writing the discussion section, you should carefully consider all possible explanations for the case study results, rather than just those that fit your hypothesis or prior assumptions and biases. Be alert to what the in-depth analysis of the case may reveal about the research problem, including offering a contrarian perspective to what scholars have stated in prior research.
Acknowledge the Study's Limitations
You can state the study's limitations in the conclusion section of your paper but describing the limitations of your subject of analysis in the discussion section provides an opportunity to identify the limitations and explain why they are not significant. This part of the discussion section should also note any unanswered questions or issues your case study could not address. More detailed information about how to document any limitations to your research can be found here.
Suggest Areas for Further Research
Although your case study may offer important insights about the research problem, there are likely additional questions related to the problem that remain unanswered or findings that unexpectedly revealed themselves as a result of your in-depth analysis of the case. Be sure that the recommendations for further research are linked to the research problem and that you explain why your recommendations are valid in other contexts and based on the original assumptions of your study.
As with any research paper, you should summarize your conclusion in clear, simple language; emphasize how the findings from your case study differs from or supports prior research and why. Do not simply reiterate the discussion section. Provide a synthesis of key findings presented in the paper to show how these converge to address the research problem. If you haven't already done so in the discussion section, be sure to document the limitations of your case study and needs for further research.
The function of your paper's conclusion is to: 1) restate the main argument supported by the findings from the analysis of your case; 2) clearly state the context, background, and necessity of pursuing the research problem using a case study design in relation to an issue, controversy, or a gap found from reviewing the literature; and, 3) provide a place for you to persuasively and succinctly restate the significance of your research problem, given that the reader has now been presented with in-depth information about the topic.
Consider the following points to help ensure your conclusion is appropriate:
- If the argument or purpose of your paper is complex, you may need to summarize these points for your reader.
- If prior to your conclusion, you have not yet explained the significance of your findings or if you are proceeding inductively, use the conclusion of your paper to describe your main points and explain their significance.
- Move from a detailed to a general level of consideration of the case study's findings that returns the topic to the context provided by the introduction or within a new context that emerges from your case study findings.
Note that, depending on the discipline you are writing in and your professor's preferences, the concluding paragraph may contain your final reflections on the evidence presented applied to practice or on the essay's central research problem. However, the nature of being introspective about the subject of analysis you have investigated will depend on whether you are explicitly asked to express your observations in this way.
Problems to Avoid
One of the goals of a case study is to lay a foundation for understanding broader trends and issues applied to similar circumstances. However, be careful when drawing conclusions from your case study. They must be evidence-based and grounded in the results of the study; otherwise, it is merely speculation. Looking at a prior example, it would be incorrect to state that a factor in improving girls access to education in Azerbaijan and the policy implications this may have for improving access in other Muslim nations is due to girls access to social media if there is no documentary evidence from your case study to indicate this. There may be anecdotal evidence that retention rates were better for girls who were on social media, but this observation would only point to the need for further research and would not be a definitive finding if this was not a part of your original research agenda.
Failure to Document Limitations
No case is going to reveal all that needs to be understood about a research problem. Therefore, just as you have to clearly state the limitations of a general research study, you must describe the specific limitations inherent in the subject of analysis. For example, the case of studying how women conceptualize the need for water conservation in a village in Uganda could have limited application in other cultural contexts or in areas where fresh water from rivers or lakes is plentiful and, therefore, conservation is understood differently than preserving access to a scarce resource.
Failure to Extrapolate All Possible Implications
Just as you don't want to over-generalize from your case study findings, you also have to be thorough in the consideration of all possible outcomes or recommendations derived from your findings. If you do not, your reader may question the validity of your entire analysis, particularly if you failed to document an obvious outcome from your case study research. For example, in the case of studying the accident at the railroad crossing to evaluate where and what types of warning signals should be located, you failed to take into consideration speed limit signage as well as warning signals. When designing your case study, be sure you have thoroughly addressed all aspects of the problem and do not leave gaps in your analysis.
Case Studies. Writing@CSU. Colorado State University; Gerring, John. Case Study Research: Principles and Practices. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2007; Merriam, Sharan B. Qualitative Research and Case Study Applications in Education. Rev. ed. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, 1998; Mills, Albert J., Gabrielle Durepos, and Eiden Wiebe, editors. Encyclopedia of Case Study Research. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, 2010; Putney, LeAnn Grogan. "Case Study." In Encyclopedia of Research Design, Neil J. Salkind, editor. (Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, 2010), pp. 116-120; Simons, Helen. Case Study Research in Practice. London: SAGE Publications, 2009; Kratochwill, Thomas R. and Joel R. Levin, editors.Single-Case Research Design and Analysis: New Development for Psychology and Education. Hilldsale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1992; Swanborn, Peter G. Case Study Research: What, Why and How? London : SAGE, 2010; Yin, Robert K. Case Study Research: Design and Methods. 6th edition. Los Angeles, CA, SAGE Publications, 2014; Walo, Maree, Adrian Bull, and Helen Breen. “Achieving Economic Benefits at Local Events: A Case Study of a Local Sports Event.” Festival Management and Event Tourism 4 (1996): 95-106.