Anita Notaro Bibliography Example

Paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria (PNH) has been recognized as a discrete disease entity since 1882. Progress in understanding the mechanism underlying the clinical features of PNH (i.e. intravascular haemolysis, thrombosis, etc.) was initially slow but has accelerated rapidly over the last decade or so. We are now in a position to explain most of the clinical features of the disorder, but our new insights into PNH have uncovered far more intriguing questions regarding the pathophysiology of the disease itself. It appears that a full understanding of the reason why PNH occurs at all will provide unique insights into the pathophysiology of aplastic anaemia and perhaps other bone marrow failure syndromes, such as myelodysplastic syndrome, as well as revealing much about normal haematopoiesis, normal lymphopoiesis and the disturbance of the immune system in ‘autoimmune conditions’. In this review, we will summarize the important advances in the understanding of PNH but will concentrate mainly on the impact these discoveries are having on the diagnosis and management of patients with PNH, as well as attempting to outline the current position on the answers to the questions: ‘Why does PNH occur and why does it matter?’

HISTORICAL MILESTONES

PNH was first described as a discrete clinical entity in 1882 ( Crosby, 1951), which was a full 50 years before the recognition that the red cells in PNH had an increased sensitivity to lysis in acidified serum. This in turn led to the first reliable diagnostic test for PNH — the acidified-serum lysis test or Ham test ( Ham & Dingle, 1939). The Ham test has remained the gold standard for establishing the diagnosis of PNH until the advent of flow cytometry in the last few years. It soon became clear that the reason for the increased lysis of PNH red cells was that they have a markedly increased sensitivity to activated complement. In the 1950s, it was recognized for the first time that the neutrophils were also abnormal in PNH ( Beck & Valentine, 1951; Lewis & Dacie, 1965) and, subsequently, that the other haematopoietic cell lineages were also affected. Dacie (1963) first suggested that PNH was an acquired clonal disorder resulting from a somatic mutation in a haematopoietic stem cell. The demonstration in two G6PD heterozygote women with PNH that only one G6PD variant enzyme was present in the PNH red cells, whereas both variants were present in the residual normal red cells, provided conclusive evidence of the clonal nature of PNH ( Oni et al, 1970 ).

Over the last two decades, there has been an ever-increasing list of cell-surface antigens that have been reported as deficient from PNH cells. To date, over 20 different antigens have been described that are missing from PNH cells ( Table I). In 1980, it was first suggested that some antigens may be held onto the cell membrane via a glycolipid structure ( Low & Zilversmit, 1980), and the structure of this glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor has subsequently been defined ( Ferguson, 1992) (Fig 1). Proteins that are destined to be GPI linked have the anchor covalently attached as a post-translational processing step. It soon became apparent that all the proteins that were absent from PNH cells were normally GPI linked and that failure in the biosynthesis of the GPI structure was the most likely cause of the PNH abnormality.

Table 1. Table I. GPI-anchored proteins on haematopoietic cells. Bold, useful for flow cytometry in the diagnosis and monitoring of patients with PNH.* Both transmembrane and GPI-linked forms expressed on this cell type.† Expressed on B-cells and activated T-cells only.‡ Expressed on a proportion of T-cells and B-cells.§ Expressed on activated T-cells and natural killer cells.¶ Expressed on a proportion of stem cells only.

RECENT ADVANCES

Biochemical defect

The identification that the PNH defect was likely to be a complete or partial deficiency of GPI-linked proteins led to frenzied activity among several groups throughout the world in an attempt to identify the underlying abnormality. The development of cloned cell lines with the PNH abnormality (both B-cell and T-cell lines) facilitated the rapid elucidation of the defect ( Schubert et al, 1990 ; Hillmen et al, 1993a ; Nakakuma et al, 1994 ). The GPI biosynthetic pathway in PNH cells was examined and found to be abnormal (Fig 2). The same step of the pathway was found to be defective in all patients studied — namely, the transfer of N-acetylglucosamine to phosphatidylinositol (the first step in the pathway; Armstrong et al, 1992 ; Hillmen et al, 1993b ; Takahashi et al, 1993 ). In addition, the same biosynthetic abnormality was identified in both PNH cells that had a complete deficiency of GPI-linked proteins (PNH type III red cells) and those that were partially deficient(PNH type II red cells; Hillmen et al, 1993b ).

The PIG-A gene

It appears that the products of four different genes are required for the first step in the GPI biosynthetic pathway. Miyata et al (1993 ) isolated one of these genes by complementation (correction) of the GPI defect in a cell line that had been selected in vitro to have a GPI-deficient phenotype and in which the defect had previously been shown to be at the same step in GPI biosynthesis as the PNH defect. This gene, named PIG-A (phosphatidylinositol-glycan complementation class A; see Table II), was transfected into GPI-deficient cell lines derived from PNH patients and completely restored the expression of all GPI-linked proteins in all cases tested ( Takeda et al, 1993 ; Bessler et al, 1994 a). Takeda et al (1993 ) were the first to describe acquired PIG-A mutations in patients with PNH and, since then, mutations of the PIG-A gene have been identified in large numbers of patients from all over the world ( Bessler et al, 1994 a; Miyata et al, 1994 ; Ware et al, 1994 ; Nagarajan et al, 1995 ; Pramoonjago et al, 1995 ; Yamada et al, 1995 ; Savoia et al, 1996 ; Lin et al, 1997 ; Pavlu et al, 1997 ). Abnormalities of the other genes, the products of which are involved in the GPI biosynthetic pathway, have not been described in PNH. Why should mutations of the PIG-A gene be responsible for all cases of PNH? The answer would appear to lie in the chromosomal localization of the various genes. The only gene that appears to situated on the X chromosome is PIG-A, with the remainder being autosomal ( Kinoshita et al, 1997 ). Thus, there is only one functional PIG-A gene in any diploid cell (including females because of X inactivation). In contrast, all the other GPI biosynthetic genes appear to be located on autosomes and, therefore, have two active copies. Thus, a single mutation of the active PIG-A would lead to a GPI-deficient phenotype, whereas for the other genes, mutations of both alleles would be necessary to produce the GPI-deficient phenotype.

Table 2. Table II. Characteristics of PIG-A.

PIG-A mutations in PNH

The somatic mutations of the PIG-A gene that result in the PNH phenotype are varied and are largely distributed throughout the entire coding region of the gene. The mutations can be deletions, insertions or point mutations, which may be missense or nonsense mutations. There appears to be no difference in the pattern of mutations between different clinical subtypes of PNH, i.e. primarily haemolytic vs. primarily hypoplastic PNH. The majority of the mutations, approximately two-thirds, are insertions or deletions. Most of these are small (1 or 2 bp), result in a frameshift in the coding region and therefore a shortened non-functional product. These frameshift mutations are typically seen in patients whose red cells are completely deficient in GPI-linked proteins (type III red cells). A minority of the mutations are point mutations, most of which are missense. Point mutations are found in either completely deficient PNH cells (type III) or partially deficient (type II) cells. Presumably in type II cells, the product of the mutated PIG-A gene has some residual activity, allowing a small quantity of GPI anchor to be produced.

Clinical features

There have been two recent papers reporting the natural history of groups of patients with PNH over prolonged follow-up ( Hillmen et al, 1995 ; Socie et al, 1996 ). These studies have clarified the frequency of some of the complications of PNH and of the long-term outcomes. Clearly, this information is of great importance when electing therapeutic options for individual patients, especially relatively high-risk therapies such as bone marrow transplantation. The median survival in PNH is between 10 and 15 years from the time of diagnosis.

The most frequent and sinister complication of PNH is venous thrombosis, which occurs in up to half of patients with haemolytic disease and is the cause of death in a third. Patients with PNH/aplastic anaemia (PNH/AA) appear to have a much lower risk of thrombosis, reported to be in the region of 5% ( Fujioka & Asai, 1989; Dunn et al, 1991 ). The most obvious difference between haemolytic PNH and PNH/AA is that, in the latter, the proportion of PNH cells is smaller (usually less than 20% of PNH neutrophils as opposed to more than 50% in most patients with haemolytic disease). In view of the high risk of thrombosis, which may occur without warning, a policy of routine prophylactic anticoagulation in patients with large PNH populations and with no contraindication to anticoagulation (such as severe thrombocytopenia) has the potential to prevent potentially life-threatening thromboses and is worthy of serious consideration.

Progressive pancytopenia occurs in a proportion of patients with PNH, and it is unclear whether this is more of a concern in PNH/AA rather than haemolytic PNH. It appears that in the region of 10% of patients will die from aplastic anaemia associated with PNH. The reversal of pancytopenia in PNH in response to immunosuppression (antilymphocyte globulin and/or cyclosporin A) appears to be at least as good as the responses observed in uncomplicated aplastic anaemia ( Ebenbichler et al, 1996 ; Stoppa et al, 1996 ; Paquette et al, 1997 ; Schubert et al, 1997 ).

The risk of leukaemia in PNH has been somewhat overstated in the literature. The incidence of acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) in PNH appears to be similar to the risk of AML in aplastic anaemia, in the region of 5%. It appears likely that aplastic anaemia predisposes to clonal haematopoietic disorders, such as AML, PNH and myelodysplastic syndrome, but that the development of a PNH clone does not increase the risk of AML/MDS. Thus, the GPI-deficient phenotype is not preleukaemic.

Another important finding from these clinical studies is that a significant proportion of patients survive for prolonged periods (≈ 25% surviving over 25 years) and that in the region of 15% will experience a spontaneous recovery from their PNH with no sequelae attributable to their disease ( Hillmen et al, 1995 ).

THE DIAGNOSIS OF PNH

Ham test

The mainstay for the diagnosis of PNH since the 1930s has been tests that rely on the lysis of PNH red cells by activated complement. Numerous different ways of activating complement through both classical and alternative pathways have been devised, but the gold standard has remained the acidification of serum (the Ham test). The Ham test, when performed scrupulously, remains a specific and relatively sensitive test for haemolytic PNH. There are, however, major problems inherent in this type of test. They are at best semi-quantitative and will not reliably detect small populations of red cells (< 5%). These relatively simple complement-based tests cannot differentiate PNH type III red cells (extremely sensitive to complement) from PNH type II red cells (intermediate sensitivity to complement). The complement lysis sensitivity test ( Rosse, 1973) can differentiate type III from type II red cells but is extremely laborious and is not suitable for routine diagnostic use. The proportion of PNH neutrophils gives a much more accurate estimation of the true size of the PNH clone, because it is not dependent on the degree of haemolysis or recent transfusions, but the Ham test cannot provide information on cell lineages other than the red cells.

Flow cytometry — diagnosis

The use of flow cytometry coupled with specific combinations of monoclonal antibodies has made a significant contribution to the understanding of the biology of PNH. Multiparameter flow cytometry has enhanced our ability to detect small PNH clones within multiple haematopoietic cell lineages, confirming phenotypically the stem cell nature of this disorder. In addition, accurate quantification of clone size is possible, thus providing the opportunity for serial monitoring of clone size and evaluation of correlations with clinical course. The sensitivity of detection, particularly for optimally designed multicolour combinations, allows GPI-deficient clones of around 0.1% to be reliably identified. This increased level of sensitivity in detection may well be reflected in the identification of an increased number of new cases of PNH, particularly among patients with aplastic anaemia who were previously negative by the Ham test. As a consequence, this has helped to clarify further the classification of PNH into two types: (1) haemolytic PNH, characterized by overt episodes of intravascular haemolysis and typically with large PNH clones; and (2) hypoplastic PNH with a clinical picture dominated by cytopenias (neutropenia, thrombocytopenia and/or anaemia) with no overt haemolysis and usually small PNH clones or predominantly PNH type II red cells.

Peripheral blood samples are recommended for screening procedures. For red cell screening, it is important to use antibodies to two different GPI-linked antigens. CD55 and CD59 are the best characterized and provide the clearest definition of type I (normal), type II (partially deficient) and type III (completely deficient) populations (Fig 3). For granulocyte screening, combinations of antibodies against two GPI-linked antigens (e.g. CD55/CD16 or CD59/CD16) plus an additional antibody directed against a non-GPI-linked granulocyte antigen (CD15 or CD33) provide the clearest results (Fig 4). The presence of a residual population of normal granulocytes in the majority of PNH patients provides an internal control. The delineation of type III and type II populations of granulocytes is far less clear than is seen by flow cytometry of red cells.

Flow cytometry — lymphocyte studies

In PNH, the presence of GPI-deficient clones within the platelet, monocyte and granulocyte components of the myeloid lineage is well documented. A small number of investigators have also unequivocally described PNH clones within peripheral blood lymphocyte populations, including B-cells, T-cells and NK cells. Indeed, persistence of GPI-deficient T-lymphocyte populations has been described in patients in long-term clinical remission of PNH with no detectable granulocyte or red cell clones ( Hillmen et al, 1995 ). The absence of GPI-linked antigens from PNH lymphocytes provides a unique model with which to study the kinetics of de novo lymphopoiesis in adults and also to monitor phenotypic changes in residual normal T-cell and B-cell populations ( Richards et al, 1998 )

Flow cytometry — serial monitoring

The clinical relevance of monitoring the size of the PNH clone by flow cytometry is unclear at present. We are currently co-ordinating a PNH registry, which contains over 100 patients, and we are performing repeated flow cytometric analyses on individual PNH patients. It is clear from a preliminary analysis of these data that the size of individual patients' PNH clones is not constant with time. The information obtained from such a prospective study may provide important insights to allow the prediction of an individual's clinical course. The ability to predict which patients will progress to MDS/AML, follow a stable clinical course or undergo spontaneous remission would greatly improve patient management, particularly when considering the decision to perform bone marrow transplantation or deciding which patients should be prophylactically anticoagulated.

PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OF PNH

Why does PNH occur?

There is now conclusive evidence that PNH only develops in individuals who have a predisposition to the development or, more likely, the expansion of GPI-deficient haematopoietic clones. Thus, the development of PNH requires at least two events: (1) a somatic mutation in a haematopoietic stem cell, affecting the PIG-A gene in all cases thus far described, which results in a GPI-deficient clone; and (2) selection in favour of the PNH clone to allow it to proliferate preferentially compared with the residual haematopoiesis. This dual pathogenesis theory for the development of PNH was first suggested by Dacie (1980) and clearly defined by Rotoli & Luzzatto (1989).

What is the evidence to support the dual pathogenesis of PNH hypothesis?

Both PNH and aplastic anaemia are uncommon disorders with a prevalence of only a few cases per million individuals. Therefore, the fact that PNH clones are reported in the region of a quarter to a half of patients with aplastic anaemia cannot be mere coincidence ( Tichelli et al, 1988 ; Schrezenmeier et al, 1995 ). In addition, there is evidence that, even in patients with PNH who do not have a history of antecedent aplastic anaemia, there is an underlying bone marrow failure syndrome. Thrombocytopenia and/or neutropenia is present in over 80% of cases of PNH, suggesting an underlying hypoplasia (unpublished observation). When haematopoietic cell cultures are performed in patients with PNH [either short-term (BFU-E or CFU-GM) or long-term], the number of colonies produced is an order of magnitude less than normal ( Rotoli & Luzzatto, 1982; Maciejewski et al, 1997 ). In addition, if the normal cells are separated from the PNH cells before culture, both components are equally poor at producing colonies. Thus, bone marrow hypoplasia, in the form of aplastic anaemia, appears to be permissive for GPI-deficient or PNH clones.

The analysis of GPI-anchored molecules on the surface of the haematopoietic cells, particularly the red cells, in PNH reveals that ≈ 50% of patients have a trimodal distribution: a completely deficient population (PNH type III cells), a partially deficient population (PNH type II cells) and a residual normal population. Thus, even by the rather insensitive technique of flow cytometry, almost half of patients appear to have more than one PNH population. Analysis of the PIG-A mutations in PNH has uncovered many individuals with two or more independent PNH clones (different discrete PIG-A mutations), and individuals with as many as four independent GPI-deficient clones have been described ( Bessler et al, 1994b ; Yamada et al, 1995 ; Endo et al, 1996 ; Nishimura et al, 1997 ). Many of these patients with multiple clones appear to have only a single population of PNH red cells by flow cytometry. Thus, there is convincing evidence that there are multiple clones in the majority of patients with PNH. The elegant study of a patient with PNH who underwent a syngeneic bone marrow transplant (BMT) and subsequently relapsed has provided further insights into the pathophysiology of PNH ( Nafa et al, 1998 ). The patient underwent a syngeneic BMT without conditioning for PNH in 1973 and had a good response. He had a laboratory relapse of PNH in 1983 and a clinical relapse in 1987. The authors identified the PIG-A mutation at relapse and showed that this was entirely different compared with the PIG-A mutations subsequently identified from material stored before the transplant. Thus, this patient must have had a tendency to develop PNH clones. Therefore, PNH is a clonal disorder (a somatic mutation leads to the clonal proliferation of haematopoietic cells), but several clones usually co-exist — PNH is frequently not a monoclonal disorder.

Is the dual pathogenesis model of PNH supported by animal models?

Several groups have attempted to produce mice with the PIG-A gene disrupted. No mouse has been produced without PIG-A activity, and it appears that a functional PIG-A, and presumably therefore GPI-linked proteins, are necessary for successful fertilization and/or fetal development. Mice that are chimaeric for a non-functional PIG-A gene have been produced, and the proportion of GPI-deficient cells either remains stable or decreases with time ( Kawagoe et al, 1996 ; Rosti et al, 1997 ). The technique of spatio-temporally controlled site-specific mutagenesis, which inactivates the PIG-A gene early in embryogenesis, has been used to create mice with up to 53% GPI-deficient red cells. The proportion of PNH red cells, granulocytes and lymphocytes falls over the first 4 months of the mouse's life but then remains stable with time ( Dominguez et al, 1998 ). Thus, GPI-deficient cells do not have a growth advantage over the residual normal cells in animals without bone marrow failure.

However, when bone marrow, either from normal individuals or from patients with PNH, was transplanted into sublethally irradiated SCID mice and the mice treated with human cytokines, a rather surprising observation was made ( Iwamoto et al, 1996 ). After 7 months, the mice transplanted with normal bone marrow had no detectable human cells. In contrast, human cells were detectable in the erythroid, myeloid and lymphoid compartments in the mice transplanted with PNH bone marrow, and these cells all had a GPI-deficient phenotype. At first glance, this finding may appear somewhat surprising, as we have already described that the bone marrow from patients with PNH has an impaired ability to form haematopoietic colonies in vitro. The explanation may well be that, because of the sublethal irradiation treatment given before bone marrow infusion, the mice were rendered hypoplastic and, therefore, the human cells were transferred into an environment that selects in favour of cells with a GPI-deficient phenotype — analogous to the dual pathogenesis of PNH hypothesis.

GPI-deficient cells in ‘normal’ individuals

In view of the high frequency of PNH in aplastic anaemia, it could be predicted that the PIG-A mutations are common occurrences, but that they only develop into sizeable clones and therefore clinically apparent PNH when there is selection in their favour. Therefore, it would be predicted that PIG-A mutations are present in a high proportion of the population. If this is true, why have they not been found? The main problems are that, without the selective advantage of aplastic anaemia, only a very low proportion of cells are GPI deficient and, because the PIG-A mutations are acquired somatic mutations, they are all different. Therefore, it is not trivial to design a method of detection for an unknown mutation that may be anywhere within the PIG-A gene and is present at a very low copy number. Indirect evidence that PIG-A mutations are present in many individuals has been provided by the observation that, if patients are treated with a monoclonal antibody against a GPI-linked molecule, namely CAMPATH-1H, which is directed against the GPI-linked molecule CD52, then many of these individuals develop GPI-deficient T-lymphocytes ( Hertenstein et al, 1995 ; Taylor et al, 1997 ; Rawstron et al, 1999 ). In one case, the PIG-A mutation, which was subsequently identified, was detected in the patient's mononuclear cells harvested before CAMPATH-1H therapy ( Rawstron et al, 1999 ). Thus, intense selection against a single GPI-linked antigen allows the clonal expansion of pre-existing PNH-like T-cells in the majority of individuals treated. This indicates that PIG-A mutations are indeed present in many individuals at extremely low levels. The presence of extremely low levels of GPI-deficient neutrophils in eight out of eight normal individuals has been described recently, and the PIG-A mutations have been identified in the majority of these cases ( Araten et al, 1999 ). Thus, PNH-like cells are present in the majority of normal individuals, as predicted by the dual pathogenesis theory of PNH.

Why does spontaneous recovery occur in PNH?

In almost all cases of PNH, there remains some normal haematopoiesis, even if this is at a markedly reduced level. There is evidence that the cytopenias associated with aplastic anaemia improve with prolonged follow-up, presumably as a result of a reduction in the underlying aplastic process. A possible hypothesis to explain the spontaneous recovery occasionally seen in PNH is that the aplastic process that is positively selecting for PNH clones reduces in intensity with time. At some point, the selection in favour of the PNH clone will lessen, and the advantage in haematopoiesis will swing towards the residual normal cells. Thus, the proportion of PNH cells will decrease and eventually disappear as the bone marrow function returns to normal. This is exactly what is seen in patients with PNH who undergo spontaneous recovery. Thus, it appears that the hypothesized dual pathogenesis of PNH explains many, if not all, of the clinical and laboratory features of PNH (Fig 5).

The evidence outlined above indicates that the growth advantage of GPI-deficient cells in PNH is relative rather than absolute and that it is not intrinsic to the PNH stem cell but results from escape from some extrinsic process. Thus, there is overwhelming evidence that the dual pathogenesis theory for the pathophysiology of PNH is true but ‘what is the selective mechanism?’ The answer to this intriguing question remains obscure and, in order to attempt to answer it, one must understand the mechanism for aplastic anaemia. The overwhelming evidence supports the view that aplastic anaemia is caused by an immune-mediated attack against haematopoietic stem cells. It is possible that the stem cells in aplastic anaemia are altered in some way, which results in an abnormal recognition of them by the immune system, which in turn results in selection against the stem cells. The other possibility is that there is simply an autoreactive immune attack against normal stem cells. Thus, there is clearly an immune component to aplastic anaemia, but it is unclear whether there is also a stem cell defect. There are several conceivable mechanisms as to how a GPI-deficient clone may have an advantage in an aplastic milieu.

(a) Immune-mediated aplastic process is directed through GPI-linked proteins

It is possible that the aplastic process is directed through one or more GPI-linked proteins and that, therefore, PNH stem cells are not subject to this insult. This mechanism appears to be unlikely, as PNH can occur in aplastic anaemia as a result of several different causes, such as post-hepatitic, following drug or chemical exposure, in Fanconi anaemia, etc. It appears unlikely that all these aplasias are caused by a common mechanism directed through a single GPI-linked molecule.

(b) Failure of cytotoxic T-cells to identify or kill PNH cells

It is possible that the cytotoxic T-cells that appear to be at least partly responsible for aplastic anaemia can recognize PNH stem cells but may be unable to kill them efficiently, perhaps because of a disruption of one or more of the co-stimulatory pathways that are necessary for effective T-cell function. It is possible that some of these pathways involve molecules that are GPI linked.

(c) Altered biology of the PNH stem cell

There is increasing evidence that the physiology of PNH stem cells is not normal. Analysis of patients with PNH demonstrates that, even when the vast majority of haematopoiesis is derived from the PNH clone (> 95% bone marrow stem cells are GPI deficient), the vast majority, if not all, of the most primitive (CD34+ , Thy-1+) circulating stem cells are derived from the residual normal haematopoiesis ( Prince et al, 1995 ; Johnson et al, 1998 ). When patients are treated with recombinant granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), the stem cells that then appear in the peripheral blood almost all have a PNH phenotype (similar to the pattern seen in the bone marrow). The reason for this abnormal behaviour is unclear but may well contribute to the reason why PNH cells escape the aplastic process. For example, the PNH stem cells may be partially protected from attack if they happen not to be in the wrong place at the wrong time!

WHY IS IT IMPORTANT TO UNDERSTAND THE PATHOGENESIS OF PNH?

Implications for PNH

Although PNH is an uncommon disease, it is a chronic condition, which frequently affects relatively young individuals and often presents extremely difficult management problems, which may persist for many years. Most haematologists who have had a ‘difficult’ patient under their care can immediately recall the problem for the remainder of their career! As PNH is unique in many ways — it is an acquired single gene disorder — it appears to be an attractive entity to consider for gene therapy initiatives. In order to consider such novel and potentially hazardous therapeutic options, we must be able to answer two vital questions: (1) which patients are destined to do poorly — we do not want to harm a patient who may remit spontaneously; and (2) what is the mechanism for the growth advantage of PNH clones — a PNH cell that is ‘corrected’ to normal by the introduction of a normal PIG-A gene will then express all the missing GPI-linked proteins and may then be selected against by the aplastic process. It must be remembered that PNH can be considered as a ‘natural form’ of gene therapy, in that the PNH cells escape from the aplastic process by virtue of their mutated PIG-A and, therefore, correcting the genetic abnormality is nonsensical — two wrongs do not make a right!

Implications for aplastic anaemia and other bone marrow failure syndromes

An understanding of the pathogenesis of PNH will provide a unique insight into the cause of aplastic anaemia. It is unclear whether aplastic anaemia is a single entity with a common pathway of stem cell insult or whether there are several different mechanisms of stem cell suppression. The fact that up to a half of patients with aplastic anaemia develop PNH clones indicates that a large proportion of cases have a similar common final effector mechanism. Fully understanding the growth advantage of PNH clones in aplastic anaemia will not only allow a fuller understanding of the pathophysiology of aplastic anaemia but may, in turn, permit the development of strategies to ameliorate the condition. For example, if the process is mediated through a single GPI-linked protein, then blocking this antigen could prevent or diminish the immune-mediated suppression of normal stem cells and, hence, ameliorate the pancytopenia. In other words, we would take advantage of the growth advantage of PNH clones without the clinical problems associated with PNH (unless CD59 is the implicated antigen). In view of the increasing evidence to support the hypothesis that there may be a pathogenetic link between aplastic anaemia and other bone marrow failure syndromes, such as myelodysplastic syndrome, it is conceivable that any novel therapeutic strategies developed could be effective in other associated bone marrow failure conditions.

Implications for stem cell biology

The PNH stem cell appears to behave in an abnormal fashion. The most immature PNH stem cells do not appear to circulate normally and thus may have an altered adhesion/association with bone marrow stroma. This may well be important for the pathogenesis of PNH, but may also allow important insights into the function/biology of normal stem cells. If the adhesion of stem cells to bone marrow stroma is mediated, at least partially, through one or more GPI-linked proteins, then fully understanding this mechanism may provide novel strategies to facilitate the ‘mobilization’ of normal stem cells.

Implications for autoimmunity

PNH cells escape an immune-mediated attack, and one possible mechanism appears to be that they avoid T-cell cytotoxicity, perhaps because of a disturbance of one of the co-stimulatory pathways. Clearly, a full understanding of these pathways should provide insights into the function of T-cells and perhaps how the system breaks down in autoimmune disorders.

CONCLUSION

There has been an incredible increase in our understanding of PNH over the last few years, and what we have learnt has merely uncovered more intriguing questions to be answered. A fuller understanding of the pathophysiology of PNH may have far wider implications than for PNH itself. The critical analysis of the expression of GPI-linked proteins for the diagnosis and monitoring of PNH in a large group of patients may well allow the prediction of an individual patient's prognosis and therefore facilitate informed individualized clinical decision-making.

PNH REGISTRY

To register a patient on the PNH registry and to have flow cytometry performed, please send 5–10 ml of peripheral blood in EDTA by first class post to the Haematological Malignancy Diagnostic Service laboratory (address below).

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank the other members of the Haematological Malignancy Diagnostic Service laboratory for their continued laboratory support. We also thank Cymbus Bioscience Limited for their invaluable support of the PNH registry, and the clinicians from throughout the United Kingdom who have entered patients onto the registry.

Home | Literary Movements  | Timeline  |  American Authors | American Literature Sites | Bibliographies | Site Updates

Charlotte Perkins Gilman: Bibliography of Critical Sources

"The Woman of to-Day and of to-Morrow; Woman's Economic Place: To Reply to the Article of Professor Peck's in the June Cosmopolitan." Jack London Journal 1 (1994): 109-47. Print.

Agosin, Marjorie. "La Escritora Subversiva: Charlotte Perkins Gilman Y Maria Luisa Bombal." Alba de America: Revista Literaria 1.16-17 (1991): 109-20. Print.

AkSehir, Mahinur. "Reading 'the Yellow Wallpaper' as Post-Traumatic Writing." Interactions: Ege University Journal of British and American Studies/Ege Universitesi Ingiliz ve Amerikan Icelemeleri Dergisi 17.2 (2008): 1-10. Print.

Allen, Judith A. The Feminism of Charlotte Perkins Gilman: Sexualities, Histories, Progressivism. Women in Culture and Society (Women in Culture and Society). Chicago, IL: U of Chicago P, 2009. Print.

Allen, Judith A. "'The Overthrow' of Gynaecocentric Culture: Charlotte Perkins Gilman and Lester Frank Ward." Studies in American Literary Realism and Naturalism (Salrn). Eds. Davis, Cynthia J. and Denise D. Knight. Tuscaloosa, AL: U of Alabama P, 2004. xvii, 251 pp. Print.

Allen, Judith A. "Reconfiguring Vice: Charlotte Perkins Gilman, Prostitution, and Frontier Sexual Contracts." Charlotte Perkins Gilman: Optimist Reformer. Eds. Rudd, Jill and Val Gough. Iowa City, IA: U of Iowa P, 1999. xx, 310 pp. Print.

Allen, Polly Wyn. Building Domestic Liberty: Charlotte Perkins Gilman's Architectural Feminism. Amherst: U of Massachusetts P, 1988. Print.

Arnold, Bridgitte. "'It Began This Way': The Synonymy of Cartography and Writing as Utopian Cognitive Mapping in Herland." Utopian Studies: Journal of the Society for Utopian Studies 17.2 (2006): 299-316. Print.

Auflitsch, Susanne. "A Woman's Place Is in the Home? Something to Vote for (1911)-a Suffrage One-Act Play." Der Fremdsprachliche Unterricht Englisch 41.85-86 (2007): 46-54. Print.

Auten, Janet Gebhart. "Helping Students Decode the Difficult Text: 'The Yellow Wall-Paper' and the Sequential Response." The Pedagogical Wallpaper: Teaching Charlotte Perkins Gilman's 'the Yellow Wall-Paper'. Ed. Weinstock, Jeffrey Andrew. New York, NY: Peter Lang, 2003. viii, 162 pp. Print.

Avril, Chloe. "Sexuality and Power in Charlotte Perkins Gilman's Herland." Moderna Sprak 98.2 (2004): 148-51. Print.

Ayan, Meryem. "Charlotte Perkins Gilman (1860-1935) the Yellow Wallpaper: The Feminist Identity." Representing Minorities: Studies in Literature and Criticism. Eds. Touaf, Larbi and Soumia Boutkhil. Newcastle upon Tyne, England: Cambridge Scholars, 2008. xviii, 236 pp. Print.

Bader, Julia. "The Dissolving Vision: Realism in Jewett, Freeman, and Gilman." American Realism: New Essays. Ed. Sundquist, Eric J. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins UP, 1982. ix, 298 pp. Print.

Badura, Catherine O. Gender Identity and Social Consciousness in the Works of Corra White Harris. 1997. Print.

Bair, Barbara. "Double Discourse: Gilman, Sarton, and the Subversive Text." That Great Sanity: Critical Essays on May Sarton. Eds. Swartzlander, Susan, Marilyn R. Mumford and Maureen Teresa McCarthy. Ann Arbor: U of Michigan P, 1992. x, 277 pp. Print.

Bak, John S. "Escaping the Jaundiced Eye: Foucaldian Panopticism in Charlotte Perkins Gilman's 'the Yellow Wallpaper'." Studies in Short Fiction 31.1 (1994): 39-46. Print.

Bard, Ruth Anne. Charlotte Perkins Gilman: A Psychobiography. 1996. Print.

Bartkowski, Frances. Toward a Feminist Eros: Readings in Feminist Utopian Fiction. 1982. Print.

Bartlett, Sally A. The Female Phantasmagoria: Fantasy and Third Force Psychology in Four Feminist Fictions. 2004. Print.

Bauer, Dale M. The Yellow Wallpaper. Bedford Cultural Editions (Bce). Boston, MA: Bedford, 1998. Print.

Beam, Dorri. Style, Gender, and Fantasy in Nineteenth-Century American Women's Writing. Cambridge Studies in American Literature and Culture (Csalc). Cambridge, England: Cambridge UP, 2010. Print.

Beer, Janet. "Charlotte Perkins Gilman and Women's Health: 'The Long Limitation'." Liverpool Science Fiction Texts and Studies (Liverpool Science Fiction Texts and Studies). Eds. Gough, Val and Jill Rudd. Liverpool, England: Liverpool UP, 1998. ix, 188 pp. Print.

Beer, Janet. Kate Chopin, Edith Wharton and Charlotte Perkins Gilman: Studies in Short Fiction. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005. Print.

Beer, Janet. Kate Chopin, Edith Wharton and Charlotte Perkins Gilman: Studies in Short Fiction. Basingstoke, England; New York, NY: Macmillan; St. Martin's, 1997. Print.

Beer, Janet, and Ann Heilmann. "'If I Were a Man': Charlotte Perkins Gilman, Sarah Grand and the Sexual Education of Girls." Special Relationships: Anglo-American Affinities and Antagonisms, 1854-1936. Eds. Beer, Janet and Bridget Bennett. Manchester, England: Manchester UP, 2002. x, 266 pp. Print.

Beer, Janet, and Katherine Joslin. "Diseases of the Body Politic: White Slavery in Jane Addams' a New Conscience and an Ancient Evil and Selected Short Stories by Charlotte Perkins Gilman." Journal of American Studies 33.1 (1999): 1-18. Print.

Bendixen, Alfred. "Charlotte Perkins Gilman's 'Toolbox': The Value of Satiric Poetry and Social Reform." Options for Teaching (Oft). Eds. Bennett, Paula Bernat, Karen L. Kilcup and Philipp Schweighauser. New York, NY: Modern Language Association of America, 2007. ix, 402 pp. Print.

Bennett, Bridget. "Pockets of Resistance: Some Notes Towards an Exploration of Gender and Genre Boundaries in Herland." Liverpool Science Fiction Texts and Studies (Liverpool Science Fiction Texts and Studies). Eds. Gough, Val and Jill Rudd. Liverpool, England: Liverpool UP, 1998. ix, 188 pp. Print.

Bergman, Jill. "'Amazon of Industry': Maternal Realism in Charlotte Perkins Gilman's What Diantha Did." Journal of the Association for Research on Mothering 4.2 (2002): 85-98. Print.

Bergman, Jill Annette. Maternal Realism: Public Mothering in the Work of Elizabeth Stuart Phelps, Charlotte Perkins Gilman and Pauline Elizabeth Hopkins. 2000. Print.

Berkin, Carol Ruth. "Private Woman, Public Woman: The Contradictions of Charlotte Perkins Gilman." Critical Essays on American Literature (Ceal). Ed. Karpinski, Joanne B. New York: G. K. Hall, 1992. ix, 272 pp. Print.

Berkson, Dorothy. "'So We All Became Mothers': Harriet Beecher Stowe, Charlotte Perkins Gilman, and the New World of Women's Culture." Tennessee Studies in Literature (Tstl). Eds. Jones, Libby Falk, et al. Knoxville: U of Tennessee P, 1990. x, 222 pp. Print.

Biamonte, Gloria A. "'... There Is a Story, If We Could Only Find It': Charlotte Perkins Gilman's 'the Giant Wistaria'." Legacy: A Journal of American Women Writers 5.2 (1988): 33-43. Print.

Black, Alexander. "The Woman Who Saw It First." Critical Essays on American Literature (Ceal). Ed. Karpinski, Joanne B. New York: G. K. Hall, 1992. ix, 272 pp. Print.

Blackie, Michael. "Reading the Rest Cure." Arizona Quarterly: A Journal of American Literature, Culture, and Theory 60.2 (2004): 57-85. Print.

Blackie, Michael Robert. Rest Cures: The Narrative Life of a Medical Practice. 2007. Print.

Bleich, David. "Sexism and the Discourse of Perfection." American Transcendental Quarterly 3.1 (1989): 11-25. Print.

Blythe, Hal, Charlie Sweet, and Barbara Szubinska. "Whatever Happened to Jane's Baby? Still Another Examination of 'the Yellow Wall-Paper'." Eureka Studies in Teaching Short Fiction 8.2 (2008): 75-83. Print.

Blythe, Hal, Charlie Sweet, and Barbara Szubinska. "Who Is Jane? Getting Behind 'the Yellow Wall-Paper'." Eureka Studies in Teaching Short Fiction 4.1 (2003): 63-70. Print.

Boa, Elizabeth. "Creepy-Crawlies: Gilman's the Yellow Wallpaper and Kafka's the Metamorphosis." Paragraph: A Journal of Modern Critical Theory 13.1 (1990): 19-29. Print.

Bomarito, Jessica, Jeffrey W. Hunter, and Amy Hudock. Feminism in Literature: A Gale Critical Companion. Detroit, MI: Thomson Gale, 2004. Print.

Boyles, Mary. "Woman: The inside Outsider." Selected Essays from the International Conference on the Outsider 1988. Ed. Crafton, John Micheal. Carrollton: West Georgia Coll., 1990. 174 pp. Print.

Braniff, Beverly S. "Using Criticism to Teach Charlotte Perkins Gilman's 'the Yellow Wall Paper'." Eureka Studies in Teaching Short Fiction 1.2 (2001): 15-24. Print.

Brannigan, John. New Historicism and Cultural Materialism. Transitions (Transitions). New York, NY: St. Martin's, 1998. Print.

Brodie, Susan Lundvall. "Margaret Fuller and Charlotte Perkins Gilman: Rhetoric and the Shape of Learning." Wisconsin English Journal 28.3 (1986): 2-4. Print.

Brown, Gillian. "The Empire of Agoraphobia." New Century Views (New Century Views). Ed. Jehlen, Myra. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1994. iv, 259 pp. Print.

Brown, Gillian. "The Empire of Agoraphobia." Misogyny, Misandry, and Misanthropy. Eds. Bloch, R. Howard and Frances Ferguson. Berkeley, CA: U of California P, 1989. xvii, 235 pp. Print.

Brown, Gillian. "The Empire of Agoraphobia." Representations 20 (1987): 134-57. Print.

Brunk, Beth Lynne. Writing out of Captivity: The Liberating Rhetoric of Women's Autobiography. 2000. Print.

Bruno, Maria. "Teaching 'Women in America': Some Notes on Pedagogy and Charlotte Perkins Gilman." Challenging the Literary Canon (Chlc). Eds. Meyering, Sheryl L. and Cathy N. Davidson. Ann Arbor: Univ. Microfilms Internat. Research P, 1989. xi, 211 pp. Print.

Bulgheroni, Marisa. "Un'immagine Sovresposta: Emily Dickinson, Scrittura Femminile E Fantasmi." RSA: Rivista di Studi Anglo-Americani 5.7 (1989): 71-76. Print.

Burton, Deirdre. "Linguistic Innovation in Feminist Utopian Fiction." Ilha do Desterro: A Journal of Language and Literature 25-26.1-2 (1991): 93-111. Print.

Burton, Deirdre. "Linguistic Innovation in Feminist Utopian Fiction." Ilha do Desterro: A Journal of Language and Literature 14.2 (1985): 82-106. Print.

Cane, Aleta. Charlotte Perkins Gilman's 'Forerunner': Text and Context. 1996. Print.

Cane, Aleta. "Charlotte Perkins Gilman's Herland as a Feminist Response to Male Quest Romance." Jack London Journal 2 (1995): 25-38. Print.

Cane, Aleta Feinsod. "The Heroine of Her Own Story: Subversion of Traditional Periodical Marriage Tropes in the Short Fiction of Charlotte Perkins Gilman's Forerunner." 'The Only Efficient Instrument': American Women Writers and the Periodical, 1837-1916. Eds. Cane, Aleta Feinsod and Susan Alves. Iowa City, IA: U of Iowa P, 2001. 241 pp. Print.

Cannon, Julie Ann Harms. Charlotte Perkins Gilman's Contributions to Classical Sociological Theory. 1997. Print.

Carr, Glynis. The Online Archive of 19th-Century U.S. Women's Writings. Bucknell University Department of English, 2001. Print.

Carruth, Mary C. "Teaching the Politics of Difference and 'the Yellow Wall-Paper' in Women's Literature Classes." Approaches to Teaching World Literature (Atwl). Eds. Knight, Denise D. and Cynthia J. Davis. New York, NY: Modern Language Association of America, 2003. xvii, 198 pp. Print.

Carter-Sanborn, Kristin. "Restraining Order: The Imperialist Anti-Violence of Charlotte Perkins Gilman." Arizona Quarterly: A Journal of American Literature, Culture, and Theory 56.2 (2000): 1-36. Print.

Ceplair, Larry. Charlotte Perkins Gilman: A Nonfiction Reader. New York: Columbia UP, 1991. Print.

Chang, Li-Wen. "The Awakening: Chopin's Reading of Leisure-Class Women in Ourland." Kate Chopin in the Twenty-First Century: New Critical Essays. Ed. Ostman, Heather. Newcastle upon Tyne, England: Cambridge Scholars, 2008. ix, 162 pp. Print.

Chang, Li-Wen. "Economics, Evolution, and Feminism in Charlotte Perkins Gilman's Utopian Fiction." Women's Studies: An Interdisciplinary Journal 39.4 (2010): 319-48. Print.

Cockin, Katharine. "Charlotte Perkins Gilman's Three Women: Work, Marriage, and the Older(Er) Woman." Charlotte Perkins Gilman: Optimist Reformer. Eds. Rudd, Jill and Val Gough. Iowa City, IA: U of Iowa P, 1999. xx, 310 pp. Print.

Cohen-Safir, Claude. "Female Gothic in America: The Uncanny Vision of Gilman, Jackson and Morrison." Letterature d'America: Rivista Trimestrale 21.86 (2001): 97-112. Print.

Combellick, Katherine Ann. Feminine Forms of Closure: Gilman, Deming and H. D. 1984. Print.

Corporaal, Marguerite. "Towards a Feminist Collectivism: Charlotte Perkins Gilman and the Nationalist Movement." Dqr: Studies in Literature (Dqr: Studies in Literature). Eds. Corporaal, Marguerite, Evert Jan van Leeuwen and Peter Liebregts. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Rodopi, 2010. 278 pp. Print.

Cranny-Francis, Anne. "Spinster of Dreams, Weaver of Realities." Liverpool Science Fiction Texts and Studies (Liverpool Science Fiction Texts and Studies). Eds. Gough, Val and Jill Rudd. Liverpool, England: Liverpool UP, 1998. ix, 188 pp. Print.

Crewe, Jonathan. "Queering 'the Yellow Wall-Paper': A Pedagogic View." The Pedagogical Wallpaper: Teaching Charlotte Perkins Gilman's 'the Yellow Wall-Paper'. Ed. Weinstock, Jeffrey Andrew. New York, NY: Peter Lang, 2003. viii, 162 pp. Print.

Crewe, Jonathan. "Queering the Yellow Wallpaper? Charlotte Perkins Gilman and the Politics of Form." Tulsa Studies in Women's Literature 14.2 (1995): 273-93. Print.

Cullen, Elaine Marie. Women Coming to Voice through Writing. 2000. Print.

Cutter, Martha J. "Of Metatexts, Metalanguages, and Possible Worlds: The Transformative Power of Metanarrative in C. P. Gilman's Later Short Fiction." American Literary Realism 31.1 (1998): 41-59. Print.

Cutter, Martha J. Revisionary Voices: Language and Feminine Subjectivity in the Works of Freeman, Chopin, and Gilman. 1992. Print.

Cutter, Martha J. "The Writer as Doctor: New Models of Medical Discourse in Charlotte Perkins Gilman's Later Fiction." Literature and Medicine 20.2 (2001): 151-82. Print.

Danielson, Caroline Page. Citizen Acts: Citizenship and Political Agency in the Works of Jane Addams, Charlotte Perkins, and Emma Goldman. 1996. Print.

Das, Dilip K. "The American Family in Transition: Some Turn-of-the-Century Images." Indian Journal of American Studies 21.2 (1991): 47-54. Print.

Davis, Cynthia J. Charlotte Perkins Gilman: A Biography. Stanford, CA: Stanford UP, 2010. Print.

Davis, Cynthia J. "Concerning Children: Charlotte Perkins Gilman, Mothering, and Biography." Victorian Review: The Journal of the Victorian Studies Association of Western Canada and the Victorian Studies Association of Ontario 27.1 (2001): 102-15. Print.

Davis, Cynthia J. "His and Herland: Charlotte Perkins Gilman 'Re-Presents' Lester F. Ward." Evolution and Eugenics in American Literature and Culture, 1880-1940: Essays on Ideological Conflict and Complexity. Eds. Cuddy, Lois A. and Claire M. Roche. Lewisburg, PA; London, England: Bucknell UP; Associated UP, 2003. 285 pp. Print.

Davis, Cynthia J. "Love and Economics: Charlotte Perkins Gilman on 'the Woman Question'." American Transcendental Quarterly 19.4 (2005): 243-58. Print.

Davis, Cynthia J. "Teaching 'the Yellow Wall-Paper' in the Context of American Literary Realism and Naturalism." Approaches to Teaching World Literature (Atwl). Eds. Knight, Denise D. and Cynthia J. Davis. New York, NY: Modern Language Association of America, 2003. xvii, 198 pp. Print.

Davis, Cynthia J. "The Two Mrs. Stetsons and the 'Romantic Summer'." Studies in American Literary Realism and Naturalism (Salrn). Eds. Davis, Cynthia J. and Denise D. Knight. Tuscaloosa, AL: U of Alabama P, 2004. xvii, 251 pp. Print.

Davis, Cynthia J. "'The World Was Home for Me': Charlotte Perkins Gilman and the Sentimental Public Sphere." Arizona Quarterly: A Journal of American Literature, Culture, and Theory 66.1 (2010): 63-86. Print.

Davis, Cynthia J., and Denise D. Knight. Charlotte Perkins Gilman and Her Contempories: Literary and Intellectual Contexts. Studies in American Literary Realism and Naturalism (Salrn). Tuscaloosa, AL: U of Alabama P, 2004. Print.

Davison, Carol Margaret. "Haunted House/Haunted Heroine: Female Gothic Closets in 'the Yellow Wallpaper'." Women's Studies: An Interdisciplinary Journal 33.1 (2004): 47-75. Print.

Dawson, Melanie V. "Teaching Herland in Context." Approaches to Teaching World Literature (Atwl). Eds. Knight, Denise D. and Cynthia J. Davis. New York, NY: Modern Language Association of America, 2003. xvii, 198 pp. Print.

De Simone, Deborah M. "Charlotte Perkins Gilman and Educational Reform." Charlotte Perkins Gilman: Optimist Reformer. Eds. Rudd, Jill and Val Gough. Iowa City, IA: U of Iowa P, 1999. xx, 310 pp. Print.

DeKoven, Marianne. "Gendered Doubleness and the 'Origins' of Modernist Form." Tulsa Studies in Women's Literature 8.1 (1989): 19-42. Print.

DeLamotte, Eugenia C. "Male and Female Mysteries in 'the Yellow Wallpaper'." Legacy: A Journal of American Women Writers 5.1 (1988): 3-14. Print.

Delashmit, Margaret, and Charles Long. "Gilman's 'the Yellow Wallpaper'." Explicator 50.1 (1991): 32-33. Print.

Delashmit, Margaret Victoria. The Patriarchy and Women: A Study of Charlotte Perkins Gilman's 'the Yellow Wallpaper'. 1991. Print.

Di Pierro, Marianne Elizabeth. The Utopian Vision in the Works of Wollstonecraft, Gilman, and Chopin. 1994. Print.

Dietz, Frank. "Women's Space: The Fiction of Charlotte Perkins Gilman." Indian Journal of American Studies 19.1-2 (1989): 19-27. Print.

Dimock, Wai Chee. "Feminism, New Historicism, and the Reader." Readers in History: Nineteenth-Century American Literature and the Contexts of Response. Ed. Machor, James L. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins UP, 1993. xxix, 285 pp. Print.

Dock, Julie Bates. "'But One Expects That': Charlotte Perkins Gilman's 'the Yellow Wallpaper' and the Shifting Light of Scholarship." PMLA: Publications of the Modern Language Association of America 111.1 (1996): 52-65. Print.

Dock, Julie Bates. Charlotte Perkins Gilman's 'the Yellow Wall-Paper' and the History of Its Publication and Reception: A Critical Edition and Documentary Casebook. Penn State Series in the History of the Book (Psshb). University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State UP, 1998. Print.

Donaldson, Kara Virginia. "Teaching 'the Yellow Wall-Paper' in a Class on Women's Autobiography." Approaches to Teaching World Literature (Atwl). Eds. Knight, Denise D. and Cynthia J. Davis. New York, NY: Modern Language Association of America, 2003. xvii, 198 pp. Print.

Donaldson, Laura E. "The Eve of De-Struction: Charlotte Perkins Gilman and the Feminist Recreation of Paradise." Women's Studies: An Interdisciplinary Journal 16 (1989): 373-87. Print.

Donohue, Kathleen. "What Gender Is the Consumer?: The Role of Gender Connotations in Defining the Political." Journal of American Studies 33.1 (1999): 19-44. Print.

Doskow, Minna. "Charlotte Perkins Gilman: The Female Face of Social Darwinism." Weber Studies: An Interdisciplinary Humanities Journal 14.3 (1997): 9-22. Print.

Downey, Dara. "'The Dead Woman in the Wallpaper': Interior Decorating and Domestic Disturbance in the American Ghost Story." Death Becomes Her: Cultural Narratives of Femininity and Death in Nineteenth-Century America. Eds. Dill, Elizabeth and Sheri Weinstein. Newcastle upon Tyne, England: Cambridge Scholars, 2008. xix, 190 pp. Print.

Druker, Elina. "Staging the Illusive: Self-Reflective Images in Tove Jansson's Novels." Tove Jansson Rediscovered. Eds. McLoughlin, Kate and Malin Lidstrom Brock. Newcastle upon Tyne, England: Cambridge Scholars, 2007. xiv, 249 pp. Print.

Dunbar, Oliva H. "Mrs. Gilman's Idea of Home." Critical Essays on American Literature (Ceal). Ed. Karpinski, Joanne B. New York: G. K. Hall, 1992. ix, 272 pp. Print.

Duneer, Anita. "On the Verge of a Breakthrough: Projections of Escape from the Attic and the Thwarted Tower in Charlotte Perkins Gilman's 'the Yellow Wallpaper' and Susan Glaspell's the Verge." Journal of American Drama and Theatre 18.1 (2006): 34-53. Print.

Edelstein, Sari. "Charlotte Perkins Gilman and the Yellow Newspaper." Legacy: A Journal of American Women Writers 24.1 (2007): 72-92. Print.

Elbert, Monika. "The Sins of the Mothers and Charlotte Perkins Gilman's Covert Alliance with Catharine Beecher." Studies in American Literary Realism and Naturalism (Salrn). Eds. Davis, Cynthia J. and Denise D. Knight. Tuscaloosa, AL: U of Alabama P, 2004. xvii, 251 pp. Print.

Elbert, Monika M. "Housebroken Men, Home-Breaking Men, and Domestic Masculinity in Charlotte Perkins Gilman's Short Sories." Twayne's Studies in Short Fiction. Ed. Knight, Denise D. New York, NY: Twayne, 1997. xiv, 234 pp. Print.

Erskine, Thomas L., and Connie L. Richards. Charlotte Perkins Gilman, 'the Yellow Wallpaper'. Women Writers: Texts and Contexts. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers UP, 1993. Print.

Farquharson, Kathy. "The Anchoress and the Graffiti: Diary and 'the Yellow Wallpaper'." Sacred and Immoral: On the Writings of Chuck Palahniuk. Eds. Sartain, Jeffrey A. and Monica Drake. Newcastle upon Tyne, England: Cambridge Scholars, 2009. xvii, 236 pp. Print.

Farquharson, Kathy. "'The Last Walls Dissolve': Space Versus Architecture in the Memoirs of a Survivor and 'the Yellow Wallpaper'." Doris Lessing Studies 28.1 (2009): 4-7. Print.

Farr, Marie T. "Home Is Where the Heart Is-or Is It? Three Women and Charlotte Perkins Gilman's Theory of the Home." Charlotte Perkins Gilman: Optimist Reformer. Eds. Rudd, Jill and Val Gough. Iowa City, IA: U of Iowa P, 1999. xx, 310 pp. Print.

Faulkner, David. "Teaching 'the Yellow Wall-Paper' in an Introductory Literature Course." Approaches to Teaching World Literature (Atwl). Eds. Knight, Denise D. and Cynthia J. Davis. New York, NY: Modern Language Association of America, 2003. xvii, 198 pp. Print.

Fehr, Drude Daae von der. "Charlotte Perkins Gilman the Yellow Wallpaper: Ansatser Til En Semiologisk Tekstanalyse." Edda: Nordisk Tidsskrift for Litteraturforskning/Scandinavian Journal of Literary Research 1 (1982): 39-53. Print.

Felder, Deborah G. A Bookshelf of Our Own: Works That Changed Women's Lives. New York, NY: Citadel, 2005. Print.

Feldman, Yael S. "From Essentialism to Constructivism? The Gender of Peace and War-Gilman, Woolf, Freud." Partial Answers: Journal of Literature and the History of Ideas 2.1 (2004): 113-45. Print.

Feldstein, Richard. "Reader, Text, and Ambiguous Referentiality in 'the Yellow Wall Paper'." Feminism and Psychoanalysis. Eds. Feldstein, Richard and Judith Roof. Ithaca: Cornell UP, 1989. 359 pp. Print.

Ferns, Chris. "Rewriting Male Myths: Herland and the Utopian Tradition." Liverpool Science Fiction Texts and Studies (Liverpool Science Fiction Texts and Studies). Eds. Gough, Val and Jill Rudd. Liverpool, England: Liverpool UP, 1998. ix, 188 pp. Print.

Fessenden, Tracy. Culture and Redemption: Religion, the Secular, and American Literature. Princeton, NJ: Princeton UP, 2007. Print.

Fessenden, Tracy. "Disappearances: Race, Religion, and the Progress Narrative of U.S. Feminism." Secularisms. Eds. Jakobsen, Janet R. and Ann Pellegrini. Durham, NC: Duke UP, 2008. 405 pp. Print.

Fessenden, Tracy. "Race, Religion, and the New Woman in America: The Case of Charlotte Perkins Gilman." Furman Studies 37 (1995): 15-28. Print.

Fetterley, Judith. "Reading About Reading: 'A Jury of Her Peers,' 'the Murders in the Rue Morgue,' and 'the Yellow Wallpaper'." Gender and Reading: Essays on Readers, Texts, and Contexts. Eds. Flynn, Elizabeth A. and Patrocinio P. Schweickart. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins UP, 1986. xxx, 306 pp. Print.

Fisher, Jerilyn. "When Women Shape the World: Charlotte Perkins Gilman's Herland (1915)." Women in Literature: Reading through the Lens of Gender. Eds. Fisher, Jerilyn, Ellen S. Silber and David Sadker. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 2003. xxxix, 358 pp. Print.

Fishkin, Shelley Fisher. Feminist Engagements: Forays into American Literature and Culture. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan, 2009. Print.

Fishkin, Shelley Fisher. "'Making a Change': Strategies of Subversion in Gilman's Journalism and Short Fiction." Critical Essays on American Literature (Ceal). Ed. Karpinski, Joanne B. New York: G. K. Hall, 1992. ix, 272 pp. Print.

Fishkin, Shelley Fisher. "Reading Gilman in the Twenty-First Century." The Mixed Legacy of Charlotte Perkins Gilman. Eds. Golden, Catherine J. and Joanna Schneider Zangrando. Newark, DE; London, England: U of Delaware P; Associated UP, 2000. 235 pp. Print.

Fleenor, Juliann Evans. Giving Birth: Images of Interior Space and 'for Eight Years I Did Not Do Anything I Thought Wrong': The Living of Charlotte Perkins Gilman. Ann Arbor, MI, 1978. Print.

Fleenor, Julian E. "The Gothic Prism: Charlotte Perkins Gilman's Gothic Stories and Her Autobiography." The Female Gothic. Ed. Fleenor, Julian E. Montreal: Eden, 1983. 311 pp. Print.

Fludernik, Monika. "Defining (in)Sanity: The Narrator of the Yellow Wallpaper and the Question of Unreliability." Grenzuberschreitungen: Narratologie Im Kontext Transcending Boundaries: Narratology in Context. Eds. Grunzweig, Walter and Andreas Solbach. Tubingen, Germany: Narr, 1999. 272 pp. Print.

Ford, Karen. "'The Yellow Wallpaper' and Women's Discourse." Tulsa Studies in Women's Literature 4.2 (1985): 309-14. Print.

Forkan, Deena Parveen. Toward an Ecriture Feminine: A Study of the Utopian Novels of Charlotte Perkins Gilman and Rokeya Sakhawat Hussain as Pioneering Endeavors in Establishing a Feminine Literary Tradition. 2002. Print.

Freibert, Lucy M. "World Views in Utopian Novels by Women." Women and Utopia. Eds. Barr, Marleen and Nicholas D. Smith. Lanham, MD: UP of America, 1983. 171 pp. Print.

Friedman, Susan Stanford. "Women's Autobiographical Selves: Theory and Practice." The Private Self: Theory and Practice of Women's Autobiographical Writings. Ed. Benstock, Shari. Chapel Hill: U of North Carolina P, 1988. vi, 319 pp. Print.

Fryer, Judith. "Women and Space: The Flowering of Desire." Prospects: An Annual Journal of American Cultural Studies 9 (1984): 187-230. Print.

Gabler-Hover, Janet. "Teaching 'the Yellow Wall-Paper' through French Feminist Literary Criticism." Approaches to Teaching World Literature (Atwl). Eds. Knight, Denise D. and Cynthia J. Davis. New York, NY: Modern Language Association of America, 2003. xvii, 198 pp. Print.

Ganobcsik-Williams, Lisa. "Confronting Issues of Race, Class, and Ethnicity in Herland." Approaches to Teaching World Literature (Atwl). Eds. Knight, Denise D. and Cynthia J. Davis. New York, NY: Modern Language Association of America, 2003. xvii, 198 pp. Print.

Ganobcsik-Williams, Lisa. "The Intellectualism of Charlotte Perkins Gilman: Evolutionary Perpsectives on Race, Ethnicity, and Class." Charlotte Perkins Gilman: Optimist Reformer. Eds. Rudd, Jill and Val Gough. Iowa City, IA: U of Iowa P, 1999. xx, 310 pp. Print.

Ganobcsik-Williams, Lisa. Revisioning American Democracy through Evolutionary Rhetoric: Charlotte Perkins Gilman in Dialogue with Social Reform Discourses. 1999. Print.

Garland-Thomson, Rosemarie. "Welcoming the Unbidden: The Case for Conserving Human Biodiversity." What Democracy Looks Like: A New Critical Realism for a Post-Seattle World. Eds. Lang, Amy Schrager and Cecelia Tichi. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers UP, 2006. xi, 298 pp. Print.

Gaudelius, Yvonne. "Kitchenless Houses and Homes: Charlotte Perkins Gilman and the Reform of Architectural Space." Charlotte Perkins Gilman: Optimist Reformer. Eds. Rudd, Jill and Val Gough. Iowa City, IA: U of Iowa P, 1999. xx, 310 pp. Print.

Gentile, Kathy Justice. "Supernatural Transmissions: Turn-of-the-Century Ghosts in American Women's Fiction: Jewett, Freeman, Wharton, and Gilman." Approaches to Teaching World Literature (Atwl). Eds. Hoeveler, Diane Long and Tamar Heller. New York, NY: Modern Language Association of America, 2003. xiv, 310 pp. Print.

Gilbert, Sandra M., and Susan Gubar. "'Fecundate! Discriminate!': Charlotte Perkins Gilman and the Theologizing of Maternity." Charlotte Perkins Gilman: Optimist Reformer. Eds. Rudd, Jill and Val Gough. Iowa City, IA: U of Iowa P, 1999. xx, 310 pp. Print.

Gill, Valerie. "Catharine Beecher and Charlotte Perkins Gilman: Architects of Female Power." Journal of American Culture 21.2 (1998): 17-24. Print.

Gillikin, Patricia. "Applying Models of Masculine and Feminine Sexuality: Narrative Patterns in Poe and Gilman." Proceedings of the Philological Association of Louisiana (1992): 61-66. Print.

Gjurgjan, Ljiljana. "The Metaphoric and the Patriarchal in Women's Writing." Studia Romanica et Anglica Zagrabiensia 42 (1997): 135-44. Print.

Gleason, William. "'Find Their Place and Fall in Line': The Revisioning of Women's Work in Herland and Emma Mcchesney & Co." Prospects: An Annual Journal of American Cultural Studies 21 (1996): 39-87. Print.

Golden, Catherine. "'Light of the Home,' Light of the World: The Presentation of Motherhood in Gilman's Short Fiction." Modern Language Studies 26.2-3 (1996): 135-47. Print.

Golden, Catherine. "Marking Her Territory: Feline Behavior in 'the Yellow Wall-Paper'." American Literary Realism 40.1 (2007): 16-31. Print.

Golden, Catherine. "'Overwriting' the Rest Cure: Charlotte Perkins Gilman's Literary Escape from S. Weir Mitchell's Fictionalization of Women." Critical Essays on American Literature (Ceal). Ed. Karpinski, Joanne B. New York: G. K. Hall, 1992. ix, 272 pp. Print.

Golden, Catherine. "The Writing of 'the Yellow Wallpaper': A Double Palimpsest." Studies in American Fiction 17.2 (1989): 193-201. Print.

Golden, Catherine. "'The Yellow Wall-Paper' and Joseph Henry Hatfield's Original Magazine Illustrations." ANQ: A Quarterly Journal of Short Articles, Notes, and Reviews 18.2 (2005): 53-63. Print.

Golden, Catherine, Elaine Hedges, and Julie Bates Dock. "Charlotte Perkins Gilman." PMLA: Publications of the Modern Language Association of America 111.3 (1996): 467-68. Print.

Golden, Catherine J. "Caging the Beast: The Radical Treatment for 'Excessive Maleness' in Gilman's Fiction." The Mixed Legacy of Charlotte Perkins Gilman. Eds. Golden, Catherine J. and Joanna Schneider Zangrando. Newark, DE; London, England: U of Delaware P; Associated UP, 2000. 235 pp. Print.

Golden, Catherine J. "Charlotte Perkins Gilman (1860-1935)." Nineteenth-Century American Women Writers: A Bio-Bibliographical Critical Sourcebook. Eds. Knight, Denise D. and Emmanuel S. Nelson. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1997. xiv, 534 pp. Print.

Golden, Catherine J. Charlotte Perkins Gilman's the Yellow Wall-Paper: A Sourcebook and Critical Edition. Routledge Guides to Literature (Routledge Guides to Literature). New York, NY: Routledge, 2004. Print.

Golden, Catherine J. "Teaching 'the Yellow Wall-Paper' through the Lens of Language." Approaches to Teaching World Literature (Atwl). Eds. Knight, Denise D. and Cynthia J. Davis. New York, NY: Modern Language Association of America, 2003. xvii, 198 pp. Print.

Golden, Catherine J. "'Written to Drive Nails With': Recalling the Early Poetry of Charlotte Perkins Gilman." Charlotte Perkins Gilman: Optimist Reformer. Eds. Rudd, Jill and Val Gough. Iowa City, IA: U of Iowa P, 1999. xx, 310 pp. Print.

Golden, Catherine J., and Denise D. Knight. "No Good Deed Goes Unpunished? Victims, Villains, and Vigilantes in Gilman's Detective Novel." Clues: A Journal of Detection 22.1 (2001): 101-18. Print.

Golden, Catherine J., and Denise D. Knight. Unpunished: A Mystery. New York, NY: Feminist Press at the City University of New York, 1997. Print.

Golden, Catherine J., and Joanna Schneider Zangrando. The Mixed Legacy of Charlotte Perkins Gilman. Newark, DE; London, England: U of Delaware P; Associated UP, 2000. Print.

Goodman, Charlotte Margolis. "Paper Mates: The Sisterhood of Charlotte Perkins Gilman and Edith Summers Kelley." The Mixed Legacy of Charlotte Perkins Gilman. Eds. Golden, Catherine J. and Joanna Schneider Zangrando. Newark, DE; London, England: U of Delaware P; Associated UP, 2000. 235 pp. Print.

Gordon, Rae Beth. "Interior Decoration in Poe and Gilman." Lit: Literature Interpretation Theory 3.2 (1991): 85-99. Print.

Gorelick, Risa P. "Go Crazy, Girl: Breaking the Silence in 'the Yellow Wallpaper' through Acts of Reading and Writing by Re-Examining Nineteenth-Century Rest Cures under a Television Talk Show Paradigm." Louisiana English Journal, New Series 4.1 (1997): 70-75. Print.

Gough, Val. "'In the Twinkling of an Eye': Gilman's Utopian Imagination." Liverpool Science Fiction Texts and Studies (Liverpool Science Fiction Texts and Studies). Eds. Gough, Val and Jill Rudd. Liverpool, England: Liverpool UP, 1998. ix, 188 pp. Print.

Gough, Val. "Lesbians and Virgins: The Motherhood in Herland." Utopianism and Communitarianism. Ed. Seed, David. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse UP, 1995. xvi, 225 pp. Print.

Gough, Val, and Jill Rudd. A Very Different Story: Studies on the Fiction of Charlotte Perkins Gilman. Liverpool Science Fiction Texts and Studies (Liverpool Science Fiction Texts and Studies). Liverpool, England: Liverpool UP, 1998. Print.

Graham, Amanda. "Herland: Definitive Ecofeminist Fiction?" Liverpool Science Fiction Texts and Studies (Liverpool Science Fiction Texts and Studies). Eds. Gough, Val and Jill Rudd. Liverpool, England: Liverpool UP, 1998. ix, 188 pp. Print.

Graulich, Melody. "Creating Great Women: Mary Austin and Charlotte Perkins Gilman." Studies in American Literary Realism and Naturalism (Salrn). Eds. Davis, Cynthia J. and Denise D. Knight. Tuscaloosa, AL: U of Alabama P, 2004. xvii, 251 pp. Print.

Graulich, Melody. "'I Thought at First She Was Talking About Herself': Mary Austin on Charlotte Perkins Gilman." Jack London Journal 1 (1994): 148-58. Print.

Griffin, Amy A. "Tearing Down Walls: The Message Behind Gilman's 'the Yellow Wallpaper'." Notes on Contemporary Literature 30.1 (2000): 10-12. Print.

Grim, Robert Thornton. "Forerunners for a Domestic Revolution: Jane Addams, Charlotte Perkins Gilman, and the Ideology of Childhood, 1900-1916." Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society 90.1 (1997): 47-64. Print.

Gubar, Susan. "She and Herland: Feminism as Fantasy." Alternatives (Alternatives). Eds. Slusser, George E., Eric S. Rabkin and Robert Scholes. Carbondale: Southern Illinois UP, 1983. xii, 209 pp. Print.

Hadas, Pamela White. "Madness and Medicine: The Graphomaniac's Cure." Literature and Medicine 9 (1990): 181-93. Print.

Hall, K. Graehme. "Mothers and Children: 'Rising with the Resistless Tide' in Herland." Challenging the Literary Canon (Chlc). Eds. Meyering, Sheryl L. and Cathy N. Davidson. Ann Arbor: Univ. Microfilms Internat. Research P, 1989. xi, 211 pp. Print.

Haney-Peritz, Janice. "Monumental Feminism and Literature's Ancestral House: Another Look at 'the Yellow Wallpaper'." Women's Studies: An Interdisciplinary Journal 12.2 (1986): 113-28. Print.

Harris, Judith. "A Psychological Approach to Teaching 'the Yellow Wall-Paper'." Approaches to Teaching World Literature (Atwl). Eds. Knight, Denise D. and Cynthia J. Davis. New York, NY: Modern Language Association of America, 2003. xvii, 198 pp. Print.

Hausman, Bernice L. "Sex before Gender: Charlotte Perkins Gilman and the Evolutionary Paradigm of Utopia." Feminist Studies 24.3 (1998): 489-510. Print.

Hayes, Mary Elizabeth. "'Having My Wishes': Charlotte Perkins Gilman's Invocation of the Goddess in 'When I Was a Witch'." Studies in Weird Fiction 22 (1998): 13-20. Print.

Hedges, Elaine R. "'Out at Last'? 'The Yellow Wallpaper' after Two Decades of Feminist Criticism." Critical Essays on American Literature (Ceal). Ed. Karpinski, Joanne B. New York: G. K. Hall, 1992. ix, 272 pp. Print.

Hedges, Elaine R. The Yellow Wall-Paper. New York, NY: Feminist P at the City U of New York, 1996. Print.

Heilmann, Ann. "Narrating the Hysteric: Fin-De-Siecle Medical Discourse and Sarah Grand's the Heavenly Twins." The New Woman in Fiction and in Fact: Fin-De-Siecle Feminisms. Eds. Richardson, Angelique, Chris Willis and Lyn Pykett. New York, NY: Palgrave, 2001. xvi, 258 pp. Print.

Heilmann, Ann. "Overwriting Decadence: Charlotte Perkins Gilman, Oscar Wilde, and the Feminization of Art in 'the Yellow Wall-Paper'." The Mixed Legacy of Charlotte Perkins Gilman. Eds. Golden, Catherine J. and Joanna Schneider Zangrando. Newark, DE; London, England: U of Delaware P; Associated UP, 2000. 235 pp. Print.

Herndl, Diane Price. "The Writing Cure: Charlotte Perkins Gilman, Anna O., and 'Hysterical' Writing." NWSA Journal 1.1 (1988): 52-74. Print.

Hill, Mary A. "Charlotte Perkins Gilman and the Journey from Within." Liverpool Science Fiction Texts and Studies (Liverpool Science Fiction Texts and Studies). Eds. Gough, Val and Jill Rudd. Liverpool, England: Liverpool UP, 1998. ix, 188 pp. Print.

Hill, Mary A. "Charlotte Perkins Gilman: A Feminist's Struggle with Womanhood." Massachusetts Review: A Quarterly of Literature, the Arts and Public Affairs 21.3 (1980): 503-26. Print.

Hill, Mary A. "'Letters Are Like Morning Prayers': The Private Work of Charlotte Perkins Gilman." The Mixed Legacy of Charlotte Perkins Gilman. Eds. Golden, Catherine J. and Joanna Schneider Zangrando. Newark, DE; London, England: U of Delaware P; Associated UP, 2000. 235 pp. Print.

Hill, Mary Armfield. "On the Diaries of Charles Walter Stetson." Critical Essays on American Literature (Ceal). Ed. Karpinski, Joanne B. New York: G. K. Hall, 1992. ix, 272 pp. Print.

Hill, Michael R., and Mary Jo Deegan. The Dress of Women: A Critical Introduction to the Symbolism and Sociology of Clothing. Contributions in Women's Studies (Cws). Westport, CT: Greenwood, 2002. Print.

Hobbs, Amy. "'The Woman Woke Up': Women's Club's Progressive Rhetoric in Gilman's Early Utopian Novels." CEA Critic: An Official Journal of the College English Association 70.2 (2008): 31-45. Print.

Hochman, Barbara. "The Reading Habit and 'the Yellow Wallpaper'." Studies in Book and Print Culture (Stbpc). Eds. Badia, Janet, Jennifer Phegley and Kate Flint. Toronto, ON: U of Toronto P, 2005. x, 297 pp. Print.

Hochman, Barbara. "The Reading Habit and 'the Yellow Wallpaper'." American Literature: A Journal of Literary History, Criticism, and Bibliography 74.1 (2002): 89-110. Print.

Hochman, Barbara. "Stowe's House and House Papers: A Neglected Source for Gilman's 'the Yellow Wall-Paper'." American Literary Realism 37.1 (2004): 83-86. Print.

Hoeller, Hildegard. "Herland and Hisland: Illness and 'Health' in the Writings of Charlotte Perkins Gilman and Theodore Dreiser." Dreiser Studies 34.2 (2003): 24-43. Print.

Hong, Sung-joo. "[Charlotte Perkins Gilman's 'the Yellow Wallpaper': The Wallpaper as a Split Self and a Disruptive Text]." The Journal of English Language and Literature 41.3 (1995): 697-719. Print.

Horowitz, Helen Lefkowitz. Wild Unrest: Charlotte Perkins Gilman and the Making of the 'the Yellow Wall-Paper'. New York, NY: Oxford UP, 2010. Print.

Howe, Harriet. "Charlotte Perkins Gilman--as I Knew Her." Critical Essays on American Literature (Ceal). Ed. Karpinski, Joanne B. New York: G. K. Hall, 1992. ix, 272 pp. Print.

Huang, Guiyou. "The Use of Audiovisual Material as an Aid in Teaching 'the Yellow Wall-Paper'." Approaches to Teaching World Literature (Atwl). Eds. Knight, Denise D. and Cynthia J. Davis. New York, NY: Modern Language Association of America, 2003. xvii, 198 pp. Print.

Huckle, Patricia. "Women in Utopias." Chautauqua Ser. Ed. Sullivan, E. D. S. San Diego: San Diego State UP, 1983. 265 pp. Print.

Hudak, Jennifer. "The 'Social Inventor': Charlotte Perkins Gilman and the (Re)Production of Perfection." Women's Studies: An Interdisciplinary Journal 32.4 (2003): 455-77. Print.

Hudak, Jennifer Klein. The Social Inventors: Edith Wharton, Charlotte Perkins Gilman and Women's Writing in Context. 2001. Print.

Hume, Beverly A. "Gilman's 'Interminable Grotesque': The Narrator of 'the Yellow Wallpaper'." Studies in Short Fiction 28.4 (1991): 477-84. Print.

Hume, Beverly A. "Managing Madness in Gilman's 'the Yellow Wall-Paper'." Studies in American Fiction 30.1 (2002): 3-20. Print.

Johnson, Barbara. "Is Female to Male as Ground Is to Figure?" Feminism and Psychoanalysis. Eds. Feldstein, Richard and Judith Roof. Ithaca: Cornell UP, 1989. 359 pp. Print.

Johnson, Greg. "Gilman's Gothic Allegory: Rage and Redemption in 'the Yellow Wallpaper'." Studies in Short Fiction 26.4 (1989): 521-30. Print.

Johnson-Bogart, Kim. "The Utopian Imagination of Charlotte Perkins Gilman: Reconstruction of Meaning in Herland." Pacific Coast Philology 27.1-2 (1992): 85-92. Print.

Johnston, Georgia. "Exploring Lack and Absence in the Body/Text: Charlotte Perkins Gilman Prewriting Irigaray." Women's Studies: An Interdisciplinary Journal 21.1 (1992): 75-86. Print.

Johnston, Georgia. "Three Men in Herland: Why They Enter the Text." Utopian Studies Iv. Eds. Leibacher-Ouvrard, Lise ed and Nicholas D. ed Smith. Lanham, MD: UP of America, 1990. 55-59. Print.

Jones, Libby Falk. "Gilman, Bradley, Piercy, and the Evolving Rhetoric of Feminist Utopias." Tennessee Studies in Literature (Tstl). Eds. Jones, Libby Falk, et al. Knoxville: U of Tennessee P, 1990. x, 222 pp. Print.

Kalish, Catherine. "The New Feminist Socialism: Community in the Writings of Charlotte Perkins Gilman." Eureka Studies in Teaching Short Fiction 9.1 (2008): 127-36. Print.

Kamath, Shanta. Transformations in the Realm of Female Authority: Spatial Representations of Power in Women's Texts at the Margins of European Colonial Expansion. 2000. Print.

Karpinski, Joanne B. Critical Essays on Charlotte Perkins Gilman. Critical Essays on American Literature (Ceal). New York: G. K. Hall, 1992. Print.

Karpinski, Joanne B. "The Economic Conundrum in the Lifewriting of Charlotte Perkins Gilman." The Mixed Legacy of Charlotte Perkins Gilman. Eds. Golden, Catherine J. and Joanna Schneider Zangrando. Newark, DE; London, England: U of Delaware P; Associated UP, 2000. 235 pp. Print.

Karpinski, Joanne B. "'I Will Follow That Pointless Pattern': A Formalist Approach to 'the Yellow Wall-Paper'." The Pedagogical Wallpaper: Teaching Charlotte Perkins Gilman's 'the Yellow Wall-Paper'. Ed. Weinstock, Jeffrey Andrew. New York, NY: Peter Lang, 2003. viii, 162 pp. Print.

Karpinski, Joanne B. "Real Property, Real Power: The Role of Property Law in the Fiction of Elizabeth Stoddard and Charlotte Perkins Gilman." Cycnos 19.2 (2002): 101-14. Print.

Karpinski, Joanne B. "Teaching Herland in an American Literature Course." Approaches to Teaching World Literature (Atwl). Eds. Knight, Denise D. and Cynthia J. Davis. New York, NY: Modern Language Association of America, 2003. xvii, 198 pp. Print.

Karpinski, Joanne B. "When the Marriage of True Minds Admits Impediments: Charlotte Perkins Gilman and William Dean Howells." Studies in American Literary Realism and Naturalism (Salrn). Eds. Davis, Cynthia J. and Denise D. Knight. Tuscaloosa, AL: U of Alabama P, 2004. xvii, 251 pp. Print.

Karpinski, Joanne B. "When the Marriage of True Minds Admits Impediments: Charlotte Perkins Gilman and William Dean Howells." The Douglass Series on Women's Lives and the Meaning of Gender. Ed. Marchalonis, Shirley. New Brunswick: Rutgers UP, 1994. xviii, 243 pp. Print.

Karpinski, Joanne B. "When the Marriage of True Minds Admits Impediments: Charlotte Perkins Gilman and William Dean Howells." Critical Essays on American Literature (Ceal). Ed. Karpinski, Joanne B. New York: G. K. Hall, 1992. ix, 272 pp. Print.

Kasmer, Lisa. "Charlotte Perkins Gilman's 'the Yellow Wallpaper': A Symptomatic Reading." Literature and Psychology 36.3 (1990): 1-15. Print.

Kassanoff, Jennie A. "Extinction, Taxidermy, Tableaux Vivants: Staging Race and Class in the House of Mirth." PMLA: Publications of the Modern Language Association of America 115.1 (2000): 60-74. Print.

Kautz, Elizabeth Dolan. "Gynecologists, Power and Sexuality in Modernist Texts." Journal of Popular Culture 28.4 (1995): 81-91. Print.

Kennard, Jean E. "Convention Coverage or How to Read Your Own Life." New Literary History: A Journal of Theory and Interpretation 13.1 (1981): 69-88. Print.

Kessler, Carol Farley. "Brittle Jars and Bitter Jangles: Light Verse by Charlotte Perkins Gilman." Regionalism and the Female Imagination 4.2 (1978): 35-43. Print.

Kessler, Carol Farley. "Charlotte Perkins Gilman." Belles Lettres 10.3 (1995): 21-23. Print.

Kessler, Carol Farley. "Consider Her Ways: The Cultural Work of Charlotte Perkins Gilman's Pragmatopian Stories, 1908-1913." Utopian and Science Fiction by Women: Worlds of Difference. Eds. Donawerth, Jane L., Carol A. Kolmerten and Susan Gubar. Syracuse: Syracuse UP, 1994. xix, 260 pp. Print.

Kessler, Carol F. "'Dreaming Always of Lovely Things Beyond': Living toward Herland, Experiential Foregrounding." The Mixed Legacy of Charlotte Perkins Gilman. Eds. Golden, Catherine J. and Joanna Schneider Zangrando. Newark, DE; London, England: U of Delaware P; Associated UP, 2000. 235 pp. Print.

Kessler, Carol Farley, and Priscilla Ferguson Clement. "Using Role-Playing in Teaching 'the Yellow Wall-Paper'." Approaches to Teaching World Literature (Atwl). Eds. Knight, Denise D. and Cynthia J. Davis. New York, NY: Modern Language Association of America, 2003. xvii, 198 pp. Print.

Keyser, Elizabeth. "Looking Backward: From Herland to Guliver's Travels." Critical Essays on American Literature (Ceal). Ed. Karpinski, Joanne B. New York: G. K. Hall, 1992. ix, 272 pp. Print.

Keyser, Elizabeth. "Looking Backward: From Herland to Gulliver's Travels." Studies in American Fiction 11.1 (1983): 31-46. Print.

King, Jeannette, and Pam Morris. "On Not Reading between the Lines: Models of Reading in 'the Yellow Wallpaper'." Studies in Short Fiction 26.1 (1989): 23-32. Print.

Kirkland, Janice J. "Mrs. Stetson and Mr. Shaw in Suffolk: Animadversions and Obstacles." Studies in American Literary Realism and Naturalism (Salrn). Eds. Davis, Cynthia J. and Denise D. Knight. Tuscaloosa, AL: U of Alabama P, 2004. xvii, 251 pp. Print.

Kirkpatrick, Frank G. "'Begin Again!': The Cutting Social Edge of Charlotte Perkins Gilman's Gentle Religious Optimism." Critical Essays on American Literature (Ceal). Ed. Karpinski, Joanne B. New York: G. K. Hall, 1992. ix, 272 pp. Print.

Kiskis, Michael J. "Placing Gilman in a Context of Intellectual Debate." Approaches to Teaching World Literature (Atwl). Eds. Knight, Denise D. and Cynthia J. Davis. New York, NY: Modern Language Association of America, 2003. xvii, 198 pp. Print.

Klimasmith, Betsy. "The 'Hotel Spirit': Modernity and the Urban Home in Edith Wharton's the Custom of the Country and Charlotte Perkins Gilman's Short Fiction." Edith Wharton Review 18.2 (2002): 25-35. Print.

Klotz, Michael. "Two Dickens Rooms in 'the Yellow Wall-Paper'." Notes and Queries 52.250) (4 (2005): 490-91. Print.

Knellwolf, Christa. "Madness and Interpretation in the Yellow Wallpaper." Cursos E Congresos Da Universidade De Santiago De Compostela (Cursos E Congresos Da Universidade De Santiago De Compostela). Ed. Barbeito, Manuel. Santiago de Compostela, Spain: Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, 2000. 185 pp. Print.

Knight, Denise D. The Abridged Diaries of Charlotte Perkins Gilman. Charlottesville, VA: UP of Virginia, 1998. Print.

Knight, Denise D. "'All the Facts of the Case': Gilman's Lost Letter to Dr. S. Weir Mitchell." American Literary Realism 37.3 (2005): 259-77. Print.

Knight, Denise D. "'But O My Heart': The Private Poetry of Charlotte Perkins Gilman." Charlotte Perkins Gilman: Optimist Reformer. Eds. Rudd, Jill and Val Gough. Iowa City, IA: U of Iowa P, 1999. xx, 310 pp. Print.

Knight, Denise D. "Charlotte Perkins Gilman and the Shadow of Racism." American Literary Realism 32.2 (2000): 159-69. Print.

Knight, Denise D. "Charlotte Perkins Gilman, William Randolph Hearst, and the Practice of Ethical Journalism." Studies in American Literary Realism and Naturalism (Salrn). Eds. Davis, Cynthia J. and Denise D. Knight. Tuscaloosa, AL: U of Alabama P, 2004. xvii, 251 pp. Print.

Knight, Denise D. "Charlotte Perkins Gilman's Forgotten First Publication." ANQ: A Quarterly Journal of Short Articles, Notes, and Reviews 7.4 (1994): 223-25. Print.

Knight, Denise D. "Charlotte Perkins Gilman's Lost Book: A Biographical Gap." ANQ: A Quarterly Journal of Short Articles, Notes, and Reviews 14.1 (2001): 26-31. Print.

Knight, Denise D. "The Dying of Charlotte Perkins Gilman." American Transcendental Quarterly 13.2 (1999): 137-59. Print.

Knight, Denise D. "'I Could Paint Still Life as Well as Any One on Earth': Charlotte Perkins Gilman and the World of Art." Women's Studies: An Interdisciplinary Journal 35.5 (2006): 475-92. Print.

Knight, Denise D. "New Evidence About the Origins of Gilman's 'the Giant Wistaria'." American Literary Realism 40.2 (2008): 173-79. Print.

Knight, Denise D. "On Editing Gilman's Diaries." The Mixed Legacy of Charlotte Perkins Gilman. Eds. Golden, Catherine J. and Joanna Schneider Zangrando. Newark, DE; London, England: U of Delaware P; Associated UP, 2000. 235 pp. Print.

Knight, Denise D. "'Only a Husband's Opinion': Walter Stetson's View of Gilman's 'the Yellow Wall-Paper'-an Inscription." American Literary Realism 36.1 (2003): 86-87. Print.

Knight, Denise D. "The Reincarnation of Jane: 'Through This': Gilman's Companion to 'the Yellow Wallpaper'." Women's Studies: An Interdisciplinary Journal 20.3-4 (1992): 287-302. Print.

Knight, Denise D. "'Such a Hopeless Task before Her': Some Observations on the Fiction of Hawthorne and Gilman." Hawthorne and Women: Engendering and Expanding the Hawthorne Tradition. Eds. Idol, John L., Jr. and Melinda M. Ponder. Amherst, MA: U of Massachusetts P, 1999. ix, 323 pp. Print.

Knight, Denise D. "Texts and Contexts in Gilman's World: A Biographical Approach." Approaches to Teaching World Literature (Atwl). Eds. Knight, Denise D. and Cynthia J. Davis. New York, NY: Modern Language Association of America, 2003. xvii, 198 pp. Print.

Knight, Denise D. "'With the First Grass-Blade': Whitman's Influence on the Poetry of Charlotte Perkins Gilman." Walt Whitman Quarterly Review 11.1 (1993): 18-29. Print.

Knight, Denise D. 'The Yellow Wall-Paper' and Selected Stories of Charlotte Perkins Gilman. Newark: U of Delaware P, 1994. Print.

Knight, Denise D., and Cynthia J. Davis. Approaches to Teaching Gilman's 'the Yellow Wall-Paper' and Herland. Approaches to Teaching World Literature (Atwl). New York, NY: Modern Language Association of America, 2003. Print.

Knight, Denise D., and Cynthia J. Davis. "Materials." Approaches to Teaching World Literature (Atwl). Eds. Knight, Denise D. and Cynthia J. Davis. New York, NY: Modern Language Association of America, 2003. xvii, 198 pp. Print.

Knittel, Janna. "Environmental History and Charlotte Perkins Gilman's 'Herland'." Foundation: The International Review of Science Fiction 35.96 (2006): 49-67. Print.

Kolodny, Annette. "A Map for Rereading: Or, Gender and the Interpretation of Literary Texts." New Literary History: A Journal of Theory and Interpretation 11.3 (1980): 451-67. Print.

Krieg, Joann P. "Charlotte Perkins Gilman and the Whitman Connection." Walt Whitman Review 1.4 (1984): 21-25. Print.

Kriete, Lucinda Marie. Ungrounded Embodiment: Lesbian Desire, Landscape, and Communal Vision in Works by Elizabeth Stuart Phelps, Charlotte Perkins Gilman, and Willa Cather. 2001. Print.

Kurrus, Jeff. "The Many Reads of Gilman's 'the Yellow Wallpaper'." Eureka Studies in Teaching Short Fiction 3.2 (2003): 68-72. Print.

Lamp, Sharon. "'It Is for the Mother': Feminists' Rhetorics of Disability During the American Eugenics Period." Disability Studies Quarterly 26.4 (2006): [no pagination]. Print.

Lancaster, Jane. "'I Could Easily Have Been an Acrobat': Charlotte Perkins Gilman and the Providence Ladies' Sanitary Gymnasium." American Transcendental Quarterly 8.1 (1994): 33-52. Print.

Lancaster, Jane. "'I Could Easily Have Been an Acrobat': Charlotte Perkins Gilman and the Providence Ladies' Sanitary Gymnasium 1881-1884." American Transcendental Quarterly 8.1 (1994): 33-52. Print.

Lane, Ann J. "Charlotte Perkins Gilman and the Rights of Women: Her Legacy for the 1990s." Charlotte Perkins Gilman: Optimist Reformer. Eds. Rudd, Jill and Val Gough. Iowa City, IA: U of Iowa P, 1999. xx, 310 pp. Print.

Lane, Ann J. The Charlotte Perkins Gilman Reader. Charlottesville, VA: UP of Virginia, 1999. Print.

Lane, Ann J. To Herland and Beyond: The Life and Work of Charlotte Perkins Gilman. New York: Pantheon, 1990. Print.

Lane, Ann J. "What My Therapist, My Daughter, and Charlotte Taught Me While I Was Writing the Biography of Charlotte Perkins Gilman." The Mixed Legacy of Charlotte Perkins Gilman. Eds. Golden, Catherine J. and Joanna Schneider Zangrando. Newark, DE; London, England: U of Delaware P; Associated UP, 2000. 235 pp. Print.

Lanser, Susan S. "Feminist Criticism, 'the Yellow Wall Paper,' and the Politics of Color in America." Feminist Studies 15.3 (1989): 415-41. Print.

Lant, Kathleen Margaret. "The Rape of the Text: Charlotte Gilman's Violation of Herland." Tulsa Studies in Women's Literature 9.2 (1990): 291-308. Print.

Leahy, Caitriona. "Reisen in Einem Zimmer, Oder: Die Wande Hochgehen." Neue Bremer Beitrage (Neue Bremer Beitrage). Eds. Fuchs, Anne, Theo Harden and Eva Juhl. Heidelberg: Carl Winter Univ.-verl., 1995. 686 pp. Print.

Leary, Andrea M. "Charlotte Perkins Gilman as a Master of Audience Newspaper Reviewers Expose a Radical Lecturer." Resources for American Literary Study 30 (2005): 216-35. Print.

Leary, Andrea Marie. 'To Point to a Solution': A Collection of Charlotte Perkins Gilman's Lectures. 1999. Print.

Lee, Vernon. "The Economic Dependence of Women." Critical Essays on American Literature (Ceal). Ed. Karpinski, Joanne B. New York: G. K. Hall, 1992. ix, 272 pp. Print.

Leffers, Mary Regina. Rethinking the Heart of Being Human: (a Reflective Adventure with Charlotte Perkins Gilman, Jane Addams, and John Dewey). 1998. Print.

Levitas, Ruth. "Utopian Fictions and Political Theories: Domestic Labour in the Work of Edward Bellamy, Charlotte Perkins Gilman and William Morris." Liverpool Science Fiction Texts and Studies (Liverpool Science Fiction Texts and Studies). Eds. Gough, Val and Jill Rudd. Liverpool, England: Liverpool UP, 1998. ix, 188 pp. Print.

Liang, Ying. A Comparative Study of Eighteenth to Twentieth Century Chinese and American Country of Women Utopian Fictions. 2009. Print.

Long, Lisa A. "Charlotte Perkins Gilman's Herland and the Gender of Science." Approaches to Teaching World Literature (Atwl). Eds. Knight, Denise D. and Cynthia J. Davis. New York, NY: Modern Language Association of America, 2003. xvii, 198 pp. Print.

Long, Lisa A. "Charlotte Perkins Gilman's with Her in Ourland: Herland Meets Heterodoxy." Studies in American Literary Realism and Naturalism (Salrn). Eds. Davis, Cynthia J. and Denise D. Knight. Tuscaloosa, AL: U of Alabama P, 2004. xvii, 251 pp. Print.

MacDowell, Lisa Emily. Reproductive Choice: Race, Nation, and Motherhood in the Works of Charlotte Perkins Gilman and Djuna Barnes. 2003. Print.

MacPike, Loralee. "Environment as Psychopathological Symbolism in 'the Yellow Wallpaper'." American Literary Realism, 1870-1910 8 (1975): 286-88. Print.

Magarey, Susan. "'The Colour of Your Moustache' or Have Feminists Always Been Humourless?" Journal of the Association for the Study of Australian Literature 2 (2003): 141-56. Print.

Magner, Lois N. "Darwinism and the Woman Question: The Evolving Views of Charlotte Perkins Gilman." Critical Essays on American Literature (Ceal). Ed. Karpinski, Joanne B. New York: G. K. Hall, 1992. ix, 272 pp. Print.

Magner, Lois N. "Women and the Scientific Idiom: Textual Episodes from Wollstonecraft, Fuller, and Firestone." Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society 4 (1978): 61-80. Print.

Magner, Lois N. "Women and the Scientific Idiom: Textual Episodes from Wollstonecraft, Fuller, Gilman, and Firestone." Signs 4.1 (1978): 61-80. Print.

Makowsky, Veronica. "Fear of Feeling and the Turn-of-the-Century Woman of Letters." American Literary History 5.2 (1993): 326-34. Print.

Mamigonian, Malina. "'Knowing Good and Evil': Charlotte Perkins Gilman's Religion of 'Sound Sociology'." Interdisciplinary Literary Studies: A Journal of Criticism and Theory 4.2 (2003): 56-83. Print.

Mamigonian, Malina. Naughty Stories: Narrative and Theodicy in the Writings of Annie Besant and Charlotte Perkins Gilman. 2006. Print.

Masse, Michelle A. "Finding Patterns in the Text: Close Reading 'the Yellow Wall-Paper'." Approaches to Teaching World Literature (Atwl). Eds. Knight, Denise D. and Cynthia J. Davis. New York, NY: Modern Language Association of America, 2003. xvii, 198 pp. Print.

Matossian, Lou Ann. "A Woman-Made Language: Charlotte Perkins Gilman and Herland." Women and Language 10.2 (1987): 16-20. Print.

Mattis, Ann. "'Vulgar Strangers in the Home': Charlotte Perkins Gilman and Modern Servitude." Women's Studies: An Interdisciplinary Journal 39.4 (2010): 283-303. Print.

Mattis, Ann M. Dirty Work: Domestic Service and the Making of the Middle Class in Modern Women's Fiction. 2010. Print.

Mazzanti, Roberta. "Dalla 'Stanza Gialla' Alla 'Terra Di Lei': Tappe Del Viaggio Di Costruzione Di Se Di Charlotte Perkins Gilman." Studi & Ricerche. Eds. Accardo, Anna Lucia, Maria Ornella Marotti and Igina Tattoni. Rome: Bulzoni, 1988. 262 pp. Print.

McEvoy, Michelle N. "Teaching Gilman in the Context of Her Short Fiction, Poetry, and Nonfiction." Approaches to Teaching World Literature (Atwl). Eds. Knight, Denise D. and Cynthia J. Davis. New York, NY: Modern Language Association of America, 2003. xvii, 198 pp. Print.

McGowan, Todd Robert. The Empty Subject: The New Canon and the Politics of Existence. 1996. Print.

McVeigh, Andrea Maureen. An Examination of the Utopianism and Feminism of Charlotte Perkins Gilman's 'Herland'. 1999. Print.

Mendez de Coudriet, Mariela E. Un-Domesticated Mothers: Private and Public Female Subjectivities in the Journalism of Alfonsina Storni and Charlotte Perkins Gilman. 2009. Print.

Meyering, Sheryl L., and Cathy N. Davidson. Charlotte Perkins Gilman: The Woman and Her Work. Challenging the Literary Canon (Chlc). Ann Arbor: Univ. Microfilms Internat. Research P, 1989. Print.

Michel, Gabriele. "Charlotte Perkins Gilman: Die Gelbe Tapete. Schreiben Als Eigenwilliger Prozess-Wahn Als Vision." Thetis-Literatur Im Spiegel Der Geschlechter (Thetis-Literatur Im Spiegel Der Geschlechter). Eds. Grubitzsch, Helga, et al. Pfaffenweiler, Germany: Centaurus, 1992. 367 pp. Print.

Miller, Margaret. "The Ideal Woman in Two Feminist Science-Fiction Utopias." Science Fiction Studies 10.2 [30] (1983): 191-98. Print.

Miskolcze, Robin. "Charlotte Perkins Gilman." Dictionary of Literary Biography (Dlb). Eds. Harris, Sharon M., Heidi L. M. Jacobs and Jennifer Putzi. Detroit, MI: Gale, 2000. xxiii, 460 pp. Print.

Monnet, Agnieszka Soltysik. The Poetics and Politics of the American Gothic: Gender and Slavery in Nineteenth-Century American Literature. Surrey, England: Ashgate, 2010. Print.

Moynihan, Mary M. "'All Is Not Sexuality That Looks It': Charlotte Perkins Gilman and Karen Horney on Freudian Pyschoanalysis." Studies in American Literary Realism and Naturalism (Salrn). Eds. Davis, Cynthia J. and Denise D. Knight. Tuscaloosa, AL: U of Alabama P, 2004. xvii, 251 pp. Print.

Muhammad, Suzana Haji. Voices of Disobedience in the Fiction of Charlotte Perkins Gilman, Kate Chopin, Edith Wharton, Nella Larsen, and Mary Austin. 2002. Print.

Murphy, Graham J. "Considering Her Ways: In(Ter)Secting Matriarchal Utopias." Science Fiction Studies 35.2 [105] (2008): 266-80. Print.

Muzzey, Annie L. "The Hour and the Woman." Critical Essays on American Literature (Ceal). Ed. Karpinski, Joanne B. New York: G. K. Hall, 1992. ix, 272 pp. Print.

Nadkarni, Asha. "Eugenic Feminism: Asian Reproduction in the U. S. National Imaginary." Novel: A Forum on Fiction 39.2 (2006): 221-44. Print.

Nakano, Kyoko. "Giruman No Chosen: 'Kiiroi Kabegami' Ni Okeru Josei No Kyoki." Amerika Bungaku to Kyoki. Ed. Hayase, Hironori. Tokyo, Japan: Eihosha, 2000. viii, 367 pp. Print.

Neely, Carol Thomas. "Alternative Women's Discourse." Tulsa Studies in Women's Literature 4.2 (1985): 315-22. Print.

Notaro, Anna. "Space and Domesticity in 'the Yellowpaper' by Charlotte Perkins Gilman." Journal of American Studies of Turkey 10 (1999): 59-68. Print.

Oliver, Lawrence J., and Gary Scharnhorst. "Charlotte Gilman Perkins Versus Ambrose Bierce." Studies in American Literary Realism and Naturalism (Salrn). Eds. Davis, Cynthia J. and Denise D. Knight. Tuscaloosa, AL: U of Alabama P, 2004. xvii, 251 pp. Print.

O'Loughlin, Jim. "Teaching Genre through 'the Yellow Wall-Paper'." The Pedagogical Wallpaper: Teaching Charlotte Perkins Gilman's 'the Yellow Wall-Paper'. Ed. Weinstock, Jeffrey Andrew. New York, NY: Peter Lang, 2003. viii, 162 pp. Print.

Owens, E. Suzanne. "The Ghostly Double Behind the Wallpaper in Charlotte Perkins Gilman's 'the Yellow Wallpaper'." Haunting the House of Fiction: Feminist Perspectives on Ghost Stories by American Women. Eds. Carpenter, Lynette and Wendy K. Kolmar. Knoxville: U of Tennessee P, 1991. x, 266 pp. Print.

Pace, Barbara G. Obstacles to Transformation: Muted-Group Theory in a Literature Classroom. 1997. Print.

Palusci, Oriana. "The Enemy's Point of View in Charlotte Perkins Gilman's Utopian Dreams and 'Practical Utopias'." Forme Dell'utopia (Fdu). Eds. Fortunati, Vita and Paola Spinozzi. Ravenna, Italy: Longo, 2000. 335 pp. Print.

Payne, Margaret Marie. 'Our Obligation to Memory': Home Environment, Public Service and Feminism in the Works of Jane Addams, Charlotte Perkins Gilman, and Willa Cather. 2000. Print.

Pearson, Carol. "Coming Home: Four Feminist Utopias and Patriarchal Experience." Future Females: A Critical Anthology. Ed. Barr, Marleen S. Bowling Green: Bowling Green State U Popular P, 1981. 191 pp. Print.

Pelz, Annegret. "Karten Als Lesefiguren Literarischer Raume." German Studies Review 18.1 (1995): 115-29. Print.

Perna, Scott Francis. The Function and Diagnosis of Hysteria in Nineteenth Century Fiction and Medical Texts. 2003. Print.

Peterson, Debra K. "A Room with a View: Charlotte Perkins Gilman's 'the Yellow Wall-Paper' and the Use of Moo Spaces." The Pedagogical Wallpaper: Teaching Charlotte Perkins Gilman's 'the Yellow Wall-Paper'. Ed. Weinstock, Jeffrey Andrew. New York, NY: Peter Lang, 2003. viii, 162 pp. Print.

Petrie, Windy Counsell. Artists, Celebrities, and Reformers: American Women Literary Autobiographers in the 1930s. 2002. Print.

Peyser, Thomas Galt. "Reproducing Utopia: Charlotte Perkins and Herland." Studies in American Fiction 20.1 (1992): 1-16. Print.

Poirier, Suzanne. "The Weir Mitchell Rest Cure: Doctor and Patients." Women's Studies: An Interdisciplinary Journal 10.1 (1983): 15-40. Print.

Post, Stephen L. "His and Hers: Mental Breakdown as Depicted by Evelyn Waugh and Charlotte Perkins Gilman." Literature and Medicine 9 (1990): 172-80. Print.

Pringle, Mary Beth. "'La Poetique De L'espace' in Charlotte Perkins Gilman's 'the Yellow Wallpaper'." French-American Review 3 (1979): 15-22. Print.

Purinton, Marjean D. "Reading Marital Relationships: The Wallpaper in a Room of One's Own." The Pedagogical Wallpaper: Teaching Charlotte Perkins Gilman's 'the Yellow Wall-Paper'. Ed. Weinstock, Jeffrey Andrew. New York, NY: Peter Lang, 2003. viii, 162 pp. Print.

Quawas, Rula. "A New Woman's Journey into Insanity: Descent and Return in the Yellow Wallpaper." AUMLA: Journal of the Australasian Universities Language and Literature Association 105 (2006): 35-53. Print.

Rambo, Sharon M. "What Diantha Did: The Authority of Experience." Challenging the Literary Canon (Chlc). Eds. Meyering, Sheryl L. and Cathy N. Davidson. Ann Arbor: Univ. Microfilms Internat. Research P, 1989. xi, 211 pp. Print.

Rao, Eleonora. "Senso, Nonsenso, Desiderio: 'The Yellow Wallpaper' Di Charlotte Perkins Gilman." Il Racconto Delle Donne: Voci Autobiografie Figurazioni. Eds. Arru, A. and M. T. Chialant. Naples: Liguori, 1990. 275 pp. Print.

Ratnapradipa, Kendra Goering. "Pathological Women or Women with Pathologies? Fiction Working within Psychological Debates." Journal of the Utah Academy of Sciences, Arts, and Letters 79 (2002): 70-77. Print.

Rawls, Melanie. "Herland and out of the Silent Planet." Mythlore: A Journal of J. R. R. Tolkien, C. S. Lewis, Charles Williams, and the Genres of Myth and Fantasy Stu 13.2 [48] (1986): 51-54. Print.

Reifenheiser, Paul. "Interpretive Bondage: Reader Response, Authorial Intention, and Gilman's 'the Yellow Wall-Paper'." The Pedagogical Wallpaper: Teaching Charlotte Perkins Gilman's 'the Yellow Wall-Paper'. Ed. Weinstock, Jeffrey Andrew. New York, NY: Peter Lang, 2003. viii, 162 pp. Print.

Rich, Charlotte. "From near-Dystopia to Utopia: A Source for Herland in Inez Haynes Gillmore's Angel Island." Studies in American Literary Realism and Naturalism (Salrn). Eds. Davis, Cynthia J. and Denise D. Knight. Tuscaloosa, AL: U of Alabama P, 2004. xvii, 251 pp. Print.

Rich, Charlotte Jennifer. Transgression and Convention: The New Woman and the Fiction of Kate Chopin, Edith Wharton, and Charlotte Perkins Gilman. 1998. Print.

Ripley, Wendy. "This Land Is Herland, This Land Is Our Land? Teaching Herland in a Course on Community and Identity in American Literature." Approaches to Teaching World Literature (Atwl). Eds. Knight, Denise D. and Cynthia J. Davis. New York, NY: Modern Language Association of America, 2003. xvii, 198 pp. Print.

Rippl, Gabriele. "Interieurs: 'Heruntergekommene Romanesken' Im Delerium Tremens-Charlotte Perkins Gilmans 'the Yellow Wallpaper'." Internationale Forschungen Zur Allgemeinen Und Vergleichenden Literaturwissenschaft (Ifavl). Eds. Kotzinger, Susi and Gabriele Rippl. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Rodopi, 1994. 387 pp. Print.

Rippl, Gabriele. "Wild Semantics: Charlotte Perkins Gilman's Feminization of Edgar Allan Poe's Arabesque Aesthetics." Soft Canons: American Women Writers and Masculine Tradition. Ed. Kilcup, Karen L. Iowa City, IA: U of Iowa P, 1999. 345 pp. Print.

Rives, Darcie D. Fantastic Writing, Real Lives: Gender, Race, and Sexuality in Early Twentieth-Century American Women's Speculative Fiction. 2006. Print.

Robbins, Ruth. Literary Feminisms. Transitions (Transitions). New York, NY: St. Martin's, 2000. Print.

Robinson, Lillian S. "Killing Patriarchy: Charlotte Perkins Gilman, the Murder Mystery, and Post-Feminist Propaganda." Tulsa Studies in Women's Literature 10.2 (1991): 273-85. Print.

Rogers, Annie G. "In the 'I' of Madness: Shifting Subjectivities in Girls' and Women's Psychological Development in the Yellow Wallpaper." New Feminist Perspectives (New Feminist Perspectives). Eds. Fisher, Jerilyn, Ellen S. Silber and Carol Gilligan. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 1998. xvii, 263 pp. Print.

Rose, Jane Atteridge. "Images of Self: The Example of Rebecca Harding Davis and Charlotte Perkins Gilman." English Language Notes 29.4 (1992): 70-78. Print.

Rosen, Jody Rachel. 'People Don't Want to Marry Me. People Want to Marry Me. I Don't Want to Marry People': Marriage-Plot Subversion through Repetition in Anglo-American Fiction of the 1920s. 2008. Print.

Roth, Marty. "Gilman's Arabesque Wallpaper." Mosaic: A Journal for the Interdisciplinary Study of Literature 34.4 (2001): 145-62. Print.

Rudd, Jill. "'Once There Was a Pig ... Does Not Interest': Gilman's Desire for Narrative Control." Liverpool Science Fiction Texts and Studies (Liverpool Science Fiction Texts and Studies). Eds. Gough, Val and Jill Rudd. Liverpool, England: Liverpool UP, 1998. ix, 188 pp. Print.

Rudd, Jill. "'When the Songs Are over and Sung': Gilman's Childhood Writings and Writings for Children." The Mixed Legacy of Charlotte Perkins Gilman. Eds. Golden, Catherine J. and Joanna Schneider Zangrando. Newark, DE; London, England: U of Delaware P; Associated UP, 2000. 235 pp. Print.

Rudd, Jill, and Val Gough. Charlotte Perkins Gilman: Optimist Reformer. Iowa City, IA: U of Iowa P, 1999. Print.

Rudnick, Lois. "Feminist Utopian Visions and the 'New Woman': Jane Addams and Charlotte Perkins Gilman." Postmodern Studies. Eds. Cornut-Gentille D'Arcy, Chantal and Jose Angel Garcia Landa. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Rodopi, 1996. 465 pp. Print.

Salazar, James B. Bodies of Reform: The Rhetoric of Character in Gilded Age America. America and the Long 19th Century (America and the Long 19th Century). New York, NY: New York UP, 2010. Print.

Sato, Hiroko. "Tabu Ni Idomu." Eigo Seinen/Rising Generation 138.8 (1992): 417-19. Print.

Scacchi, Anna. "L'abito a Utopia: Il Sogno Di Charlotte Perkins Gilman." Abito E Identita: Ricerche Di Storia Letteraria E Culturale, Iii. Ed. Giorcelli, Cristina. Rome, Italy: Associate Editrice Internazionale, 1999. 206 pp. Print.

Scacchi, Anna. "Oltre Le Mura Domestiche: La Donna, La Casa E La Citta Nell'opera Di Charlotte Perkins Gilman." Citta Reali E Immaginarie Del Continente Americano. Eds. Giorcelli, Cristina, Camilla Cattarulla and Anna Scacchi. Rome, Italy: Edizioni Associate Editrice Internazionale, 1998. 726 pp. Print.

Scharnhorst, Gary. "Charlotte Perkins Gilman's 'the Giant Wistaria': A Hieroglyph of the Female Frontier Gothic." Frontier Gothic: Terror and Wonder at the Frontier in American Literature. Eds. Mogen, David, Scott P. Sanders and Joanne B. Karpinski. Rutherford, NJ: Fairleigh Dickinson UP, 1993. 206 pp. Print.

Scharnhorst, Gary. "Historicizing Gilman: A Bibliographer's View." The Mixed Legacy of Charlotte Perkins Gilman. Eds. Golden, Catherine J. and Joanna Schneider Zangrando. Newark, DE; London, England: U of Delaware P; Associated UP, 2000. 235 pp. Print.

Scharnhorst, Gary. "The Intellectual Context of Herland: The Social Theories of Lester Ward." Approaches to Teaching World Literature (Atwl). Eds. Knight, Denise D. and Cynthia J. Davis. New York, NY: Modern Language Association of America, 2003. xvii, 198 pp. Print.

Scharnhorst, Gary. "Making Her Fame: Charlotte Perkins Gilman in California." California Hist. 64.3 (1985): 192-201. Print.

Scharnhorst, Gary. "Reconstructing Here Also: On the Later Poetry of Charlotte Perkins Gilman." Critical Essays on American Literature (Ceal). Ed. Karpinski, Joanne B. New York: G. K. Hall, 1992. ix, 272 pp. Print.

Scharnhorst, Gary, and Denise D. Knight. "Charlotte Perkins Gilman's Library: A Reconstruction." Resources for American Literary Study 23.2 (1997): 181-219. Print.

Schopp-Schilling, Beate. "'The Yellow Wallpaper': A Rediscovered 'Realistic' Story." American Literary Realism, 1870-1910 8 (1975): 284-86. Print.

Schwartz-McKinzie, Esther. 'Play with the Stories a Little While': Mobility of Mind in Short Fictions by Charlotte Perkins Gilman, Kate Chopin, George Egerton and Sarah Grand. 2002. Print.

Schweninger, Lee. "Reading the Garden in Gilman's 'the Yellow Wallpaper'." Isle: Interdisciplinary Studies in Literature and Environment 2.2 (1996): 25-44. Print.

Scott, Heidi. "Crazed Nature: Ecology in 'the Yellow Wallpaper'." Explicator 67.3 (2009): 198-203. Print.

Seigfried, Charlene Haddock. "Classical American Philosophy's Invisible Women." Canadian Review of American Studies/Revue Canadienne d'Etudes Americaines (1992): 83-116. Print.

Seitler, Dana. The Crux. Durham, NC: Duke UP, 2003. Print.

Seitler, Dana. "Unnatural Selection: Mothers, Eugenic Feminism, and Charlotte Perkins Gilman's Regeneration Narratives." American Quarterly 55.1 (2003): 61-88. Print.

Shaheen, Aaron. Androgynous Democracy: Modern American Literature and the Dual-Sexed Body Politic. Knoxville, TN: U of Tennessee P, 2010. Print.

Shaw, Robyn. "Teaching 'the Yellow Wall-Paper' and Existentialism in the Classroom." The Pedagogical Wallpaper: Teaching Charlotte Perkins Gilman's 'the Yellow Wall-Paper'. Ed. Weinstock, Jeffrey Andrew. New York, NY: Peter Lang, 2003. viii, 162 pp. Print.

Shishin, Alex. "Gender and Industry in Herland: Trees as a Means of Production and Metaphor." Liverpool Science Fiction Texts and Studies (Liverpool Science Fiction Texts and Studies). Eds. Gough, Val and Jill Rudd. Liverpool, England: Liverpool UP, 1998. ix, 188 pp. Print.

Shishin, Alex. "Utopian Ecology: Technology and Social Organization in Relation to Nature and Freedom." Cross/Cultures: Readings in the Post/Colonial Literatures in English (Crossc). Eds. Volkmann, Laurenz, et al. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Rodopi, 2010. xvii, 370 pp. Print.

Shumaker, Conrad. "Realism, Reform, and the Audience: Charlotte Perkins Gilman's Unreadable Wallpaper." Arizona Quarterly: A Journal of American Literature, Culture, and Theory 47.1 (1991): 81-93. Print.

Shumaker, Conrad. "'Too Terribly Good to Be Printed': Charlotte Gilman's 'the Yellow Wallpaper'." Bloom's Literary Themes (Bloom's Literary Themes). Eds. Bloom, Harold and Blake Hobby. New York, NY: Bloom's Literary Criticism, 2010. xvi, 273 pp. Print.

Shumaker, Conrad. "'Too Terribly Good to Be Printed': Charlotte Gilman's 'the Yellow Wallpaper'." American Literature: A Journal of Literary History, Criticism, and Bibliography 57.4 (1985): 588-99. Print.

Shurbutt, Sylvia Bailey. "Charlotte Perkins Gilman 1860-1935." American Writers: A Collection of Literary Biographies, Supplement Xi: Toni Cade Bambara to Richard Yates. Ed. Parini, Jay. New York, NY: Scribner's, 2002. xvi, 619 pp. Print.

Siegel, Jennifer Semple. "Charlotte Perkins (Stetson) Gilman's the Yellow Wallpaper: Fiction 'with a Purpose' and the Need to Know the Real Story." CEA Critic: An Official Journal of the College English Association 59.3 (1997): 44-57. Print.

Singer-Wilson, Layah. "Utopia in Action: Mapping and Ideal Humanist World." Canadian Woman Studies/Les Cahiers de la Femme 20-21.4-1 (2001): 156-59. Print.

Skredsvig, Kari Meyers. "Narrative Poses and Posing as Narrative: Identity and the Writing Subject in Gilman's 'the Yellow Wallpaper'." Kanina: Revista de Artes y Letras de la Universidad de Costa Rica 21.2 (1997): 47-53. Print.

Sledge, Martha Lee. Writing against Their Cultures: The Autobiographical Writings of Edith Wharton, H. D., Charlotte Perkins Gilman, and Ellen Glasgow. 1992. Print.

Smith, Evans Lansing. "Myths of Poesis, Hermeneusis, and Psychogenesis: Hoffmann, Tagore, and Gilman." Studies in Short Fiction 34.2 (1997): 227-36. Print.

Smith, Marsha A. "The Disoriented Male Narrator and Societal Conversion: Charlotte Perkins Gilman's Feminist Utopian Vision." American Transcendental Quarterly 3.1 (1989): 123-33. Print.

Smith, Margaret Jackson. "Charlotte Perkins Gilman and Emma Goldman Reformer and Radical." The Arkansas Review: A Journal of Criticism 3.2 (1994): 152-67. Print.

St. Jean, Shawn. "Gilman's Manuscript of 'the Yellow Wall-Paper': Toward a Critical Edition." Studies in Bibliography: Papers of the Bibliographical Society of the University of Virginia 51 (1998): 259-73. Print.

St. Jean, Shawn. "An Updated Publication History of 'the Yellow Wall-Paper'." Studies in Short Fiction 34.2 (1997): 237045. Print.

St. Jean, Shawn. The Yellow Wall-Paper by Charlotte Perkins Gilman: A Dual-Text Critical Edition. Athens, OH: Ohio UP, 2006. Print.

Stevenson, Karen. "Hair Today, Shorn Tomorrow? Hair Symbolism, Gender, and the Agency of Self." Charlotte Perkins Gilman: Optimist Reformer. Eds. Rudd, Jill and Val Gough. Iowa City, IA: U of Iowa P, 1999. xx, 310 pp. Print.

Stratton, Susan. "Intersubjectivity and Difference in Feminist Ecotopias." FEMSPEC: An Interdisciplinary Feminist Journal Dedicated to Critical and Creative Work in the Realms of Science Fiction, Fantasy, Magical Realism, Surrealism, Myth, Folklore, and Other Supernatural Genres 3.1 (2001): 33-43. Print.

Suess, Barbara A. "The Writing's on the Wall: Symbolic Orders in 'the Yellow Wallpaper'." Women's Studies: An Interdisciplinary Journal 32.1 (2003): 79-97. Print.

Sutton-Ramspeck, Beth. Raising the Dust: The Literary Housekeeping of Mary Ward, Sarah Grand, and Charlotte Perkins Gilman. Athens, OH: Ohio UP, 2004. Print.

Tanski, Anne E. "The Sins of the Innocent: Breaking the Barriers of Role Conflict." Liverpool Science Fiction Texts and Studies (Liverpool Science Fiction Texts and Studies). Eds. Gough, Val and Jill Rudd. Liverpool, England: Liverpool UP, 1998. ix, 188 pp. Print.

Thomas, Heather Kirk. "'[a] Kind of 'Debased Romanesque' with Delirium Tremens': Late-Victorian Wall Coverings and Charlotte Perkins Gilman's 'the Yellow Wall-Paper'." The Mixed Legacy of Charlotte Perkins Gilman. Eds. Golden, Catherine J. and Joanna Schneider Zangrando. Newark, DE; London, England: U of Delaware P; Associated UP, 2000. 235 pp. Print.

Thomson, Jennifer Ruth. After All There Was Nothing Impossible in It: Polemic and Utopia in the Writing of Charlotte Perkins Gilman. 1997. Print.

Thrailkill, Jane F. "Doctoring 'the Yellow Wallpaper'." ELH 69.2 (2002): 525-66. Print.

Totten, Gary. "Ideology and Aesthetics in Teaching Gilman's Works." Approaches to Teaching World Literature (Atwl). Eds. Knight, Denise D. and Cynthia J. Davis. New York, NY: Modern Language Association of America, 2003. xvii, 198 pp. Print.

Treichler, Paula A. "Escaping the Sentence: Diagnosis and Discourse in 'the Yellow Wallpaper'." Tulsa Studies in Women's Literature 3.1-2 (1984): 61-77. Print.

Treichler, Paula A. "The Wall Behind the Yellow Wallpaper: Response to Carol Neely and Karen Ford." Tulsa Studies in Women's Literature 4.2 (1985): 323-30. Print.

Tripathi, Vanashree. "Charlotte Perkins Gilman's the Yellow Wallpaper: A Gynograph." Indian Journal of American Studies 27.1 (1997): 65-69. Print.

Tunc, Tanfer Emin. "Disease and Desire: Disciplining Encoded Homoeroticism in Jane Eyre and 'the Yellow Wallpaper'." Foreign Literature Studies/Wai Guo Wen Xue Yan Jiu 31.1 [135] (2009): 40-49. Print.

Tuttle, Jennifer. "Gilman's the Crux and Owen Wister's the Virginian: Intertextuality and 'Women's Manifest Destiny." Studies in American Literary Realism and Naturalism (Salrn). Eds. Davis, Cynthia J. and Denise D. Knight. Tuscaloosa, AL: U of Alabama P, 2004. xvii, 251 pp. Print.

Tuttle, Jennifer S. The Crux: A Novel. Newark, DE; London, England: U of Delaware P; Associated UP, 2002. Print.

Tuttle, Jennifer S. "Rewriting the West Cure: Charlotte Perkins Gilman, Owen Wister, and the Sexual Politics of Neurasthenia." The Mixed Legacy of Charlotte Perkins Gilman. Eds. Golden, Catherine J. and Joanna Schneider Zangrando. Newark, DE; London, England: U of Delaware P; Associated UP, 2000. 235 pp. Print.

Van Wienen, Mark W. "Gilman's Socialism as Background to Her Writings." Approaches to Teaching World Literature (Atwl). Eds. Knight, Denise D. and Cynthia J. Davis. New York, NY: Modern Language Association of America, 2003. xvii, 198 pp. Print.

Van Wienen, Mark W. "A Rose by Any Other Name: Charlotte Perkins Stetson (Gilman) and the Case for American Reform Socialism." American Quarterly 55.4 (2003): 603-34. Print.

Veeder, William. "Who Is Jane? The Intricate Feminism of Charlotte Perkins Gilman." Arizona Quarterly: A Journal of American Literature, Culture, and Theory 44.3 (1988): 40-79. Print.

Wagner-Martin, Linda. "Gilman's 'the Yellow Wallpaper': A Centenary." Challenging the Literary Canon (Chlc). Eds. Meyering, Sheryl L. and Cathy N. Davidson. Ann Arbor: Univ. Microfilms Internat. Research P, 1989. xi, 211 pp. Print.

Walker, Gary L. Evolving toward Utopia: An Exploration of Evolutionary Ideas in Utopias at the Turn of the Nineteenth Century. 2004. Print.

Warren, Joyce W. "Fracturing Gender: Woman's Economic Independence." Nineteenth-Century American Women Writers: A Critical Reader. Ed. Kilcup, Karen L. Malden, MA: Blackwell, 1998. 251 pp. Print.

Weatherford, Jenny. "Approaching the Ineffable: 'The Yellow Wallpaper' and Gilman's Problem with Language." American Studies in Scandinavia 31.2 (1999): 58-75. Print.

Weber, Jean Jacques. "Educating the Reader: Narrative Technique and Evaluation in Charlotte Perkins Gilman's Herland." The Language and Literature Reader. Eds. Carter, Ronald and Peter Stockwell. London, England: Routledge, 2008. xii, 306 pp. Print.

Weber, Jean Jacques. "Educating the Reader: Narrative Technique and Evaluation in Charlotte Perkins Gilman's Herland." Studies in Literature (Dqr: Studies in Literature). Eds. Bex, Tony, et al. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Rodopi, 2000. vii, 278 pp. Print.

Wegener, Frederick. "Charlotte Perkins Gilman, Edith Wharton, and the Divided Heritage of American Literary Feminism." The Mixed Legacy of Charlotte Perkins Gilman. Eds. Golden, Catherine J. and Joanna Schneider Zangrando. Newark, DE; London, England: U of Delaware P; Associated UP, 2000. 235 pp. Print.

Wegener, Frederick. "'What a Comfort a Woman Doctor Is!': Medical Women in the Life and Writing of Charlotte Perkins Gilman." Charlotte Perkins Gilman: Optimist Reformer. Eds. Rudd, Jill and Val Gough. Iowa City, IA: U of Iowa P, 1999. xx, 310 pp. Print.

Wegley, Mark. "Stripping 'the Yellow Wallpaper': A Critical Remodeling of Gilman's Supernatural Subtext." Philological Review 30.1 (2004): 15-24. Print.

Weinbaum, Alys Eve. Wayward Reproductions: Genealogies of Race and Nation in Transatlantic Modern Thought. Next Wave: New Directions in Women's Studies (Next Wave: New Directions in Women's Studies). Durham, NC: Duke UP, 2004. Print.

Weinstein, Lee. "'The Yellow Wallpaper': A Supernatural Interpretation." Studies in Weird Fiction 4 (1988): 23-35. Print.

Weinstock, Jeffrey Andrew. "Female-Authored Gothic Tales in the Nineteenth-Century Popular Press." Popular Nineteenth-Century American Women Writers and the Literary Marketplace. Eds. Yarington, Earl and Mary De Jong. Newcastle upon Tyne, England: Cambridge Scholars, 2007. xi, 496 pp. Print.

Weinstock, Jeffrey Andrew. The Pedagogical Wallpaper: Teaching Charlotte Perkins Gilman's 'the Yellow Wall-Paper'. New York, NY: Peter Lang, 2003. Print.

Weinstock, Jeffrey Andrew. Scare Tactics: Supernatural Fiction by American Women. New York, NY: Fordham UP, 2008. Print.

Wells, Kim. Domestic Goddesses. Women Writers: A Zine, 2003. Print.

Whitehouse, Carol. Nineteenth-Century American Women Writers: Imagining Feminism. 2009. Print.

Wiesenthal, C. S. "'Unheard-of Contradictions': The Language of Madness in C. P. Gilman's 'the Yellow Wallpaper'." Wascana Review of Contemporary Poetry and Short Fiction 25.2 (1990): 1-17. Print.

Will, Barbara. "Nervous Systems, 1880-1915." American Bodies: Cultural Histories of the Physique. Ed. Armstrong, Tim. New York: New York UP, 1996. 212 pp. Print.

Wilson, Christopher P. "Charlotte Perkins Gilman's Steady Burghers: The Terrain of Herland." Women's Studies: An Interdisciplinary Journal 12.3 (1986): 271-92. Print.

Winkler, Barbara Scott. "Victorian Daughters: The Lives and Feminism of Charlotte Perkins Gilman and Olive Schreiner." Critical Essays on American Literature (Ceal). Ed. Karpinski, Joanne B. New York: G. K. Hall, 1992. ix, 272 pp. Print.

Wisker, Gina. "Breakdown, Breakthrough, or Brainwash? A Dialogic Approach to Charlotte Perkins Gilman's 'the Yellow Wall-Paper'." The Pedagogical Wallpaper: Teaching Charlotte Perkins Gilman's 'the Yellow Wall-Paper'. Ed. Weinstock, Jeffrey Andrew. New York, NY: Peter Lang, 2003. viii, 162 pp. Print.

Wolosky, Shira. "Public Women, Private Men: American Women Poets and the Common Good." Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society 28.2 (2003): 665-94. Print.

Wolter, Jurgen. "'The Yellow Wall-Paper': The Ambivalence of Changing Discourses." Amerikastudien/American Studies 54.2 (2009): 195-210. Print.

Woodville, Katherine E. "Color Copy: Woolf's Parody 'the Mark on the Wall' Deconstructs 'the Yellow Wallpaper'." The Image of the Outsider Ii. Eds. Wright, Will and Steven Kaplan. Pueblo, CO: Society for the Interdisciplinary Study of Social Imagery Colorado State University-Pueblo, 2008. 553 pp. Print.

Wrisley, Melyssa. "Stella Blum Grand Report: 'Fashion I Despised': Charlotte Perkins Gilman and American Dress Reform, 1880-1920." Dress 33 (2006): 97-110. Print.

Xu, Huiqi Hsu. "Chao Yue Fu Shi Gai Ge De Gai Ge Lun Shu-Ji'erman De Nu Xing De Fu Shi Ji Qi Pi Pan Yi Han." EurAmerica: A Journal of European and American Studies 38.2 (2008): 307-61. Print.

Zauderer, Naomi B. "Consumption, Production, and Reproduction in the Work of Charlotte Perkins Gilman." Charlotte Perkins Gilman: Optimist Reformer. Eds. Rudd, Jill and Val Gough. Iowa City, IA: U of Iowa P, 1999. xx, 310 pp. Print.

Zhang, Xiaohong. "Wen Ben Li You Nu Ren Ma? Yue Du Huang Se Bi Zhi." Chung-wai Literary Monthly: Studies in Chinese and Foreign Literatures 22.10 (1994): 57-67. Print.

0 Replies to “Anita Notaro Bibliography Example”

Lascia un Commento

L'indirizzo email non verrà pubblicato. I campi obbligatori sono contrassegnati *