2005 Contest Essay

Where Are They Now: Kevin Zhou, 2005 Profile in Courage Essay Contest Winner

This series profiles past winners of the Profile in Courage Essay Contest — which is currently open for submissions from U.S. high school students, with a $10,000 first prize scholarship. Our deadline is January 6th.

You were a first-place winner of the 2003 Profile in Courage Essay Contest. Tell us about that experience. What drew you to the contest? What was most rewarding about the experience? Most challenging?

I was truly honored to win the Profile in Courage Essay Contest. The most rewarding part of my experience was flying to Boston and receiving the award from Senator Ted Kennedy, a personal hero of mine who had dedicated his life to public service. I was also grateful to have the opportunity to meet Caroline Kennedy and was deeply moved after hearing the experiences of the Profile in Courage Award Winners. The overall experience was extremely inspiring and reaffirmed my interest in pursuing a career in public service.

What are you doing at the moment? What is most important about it? Is there a particular idea, topic, or issue that is driving your work and thinking at the moment?

I currently serve in the Office of the Secretary of Defense as Country Director for India Policy. In this capacity, I have an opportunity to write policy papers and briefing memos on U.S.-India defense relations for senior defense leadership, including the Secretary of Defense and the Under Secretary of Defense. I also traveled to Delhi twice earlier this year to support negotiations on the Defense Technology and Trade Initiative, a Presidential-level effort aimed at strengthening the bilateral defense relationship. Prior to entering public service, I graduated Phi Beta Kappa from Harvard College. Following college, I received a full tuition scholarship from the Frank Buck Foundation to pursue my graduate studies in the United Kingdom, receiving M. Phil degrees from the University of Cambridge and the University of Oxford.

What impact did participating in (and winning) the Profile in Courage Essay Contest have on you?

After winning the Profiles in Courage Essay Contest, I decided to major in Government at Harvard College. I wanted to deepen my understanding of domestic and foreign policy challenges, and these experiences ultimately led me to my current position in government.

What advice would you give to potential Profile in Courage Essay Contest participants?

I would advise participants to choose a topic that they are genuinely interested in, examine it from all angles, and question the assumptions that may prevail in primary and secondary sources. And try to have fun!

If you’re a U.S. high school student or have a friend or family member who is one, let them know about the Profile in Courage Essay Contest. There’s still time to submit — our deadline is January 6th.

Dr. Perelman contacted the College Board and was surprised to learn that on the new SAT essay, students are not penalized for incorrect facts. The official guide for scorers explains: "Writers may make errors in facts or information that do not affect the quality of their essays. For example, a writer may state 'The American Revolution began in 1842' or "'Anna Karenina," a play by the French author Joseph Conrad, was a very upbeat literary work."' (Actually, that's 1775; a novel by the Russian Leo Tolstoy; and poor Anna hurls herself under a train.) No matter. "You are scoring the writing, and not the correctness of facts."

How to prepare for such an essay? "I would advise writing as long as possible," said Dr. Perelman, "and include lots of facts, even if they're made up." This, of course, is not what he teaches his M.I.T. students. "It's exactly what we don't want to teach our kids," he said.

SAT graders are told to read an essay just once and spend two to three minutes per essay, and Dr. Perelman is now adept at rapid-fire SAT grading. This reporter held up a sample essay far enough away so it could not be read, and he was still able to guess the correct grade by its bulk and shape. "That's a 4," he said. "It looks like a 4."

A report released this week by the National Council of Teachers of English mirrors Dr. Perelman's criticism of the new SAT essay. It cautions that a single, 25-minute writing test ignores the most basic lesson of writing -- that good writing is rewriting. It warns that the SAT is pushing schools toward "formulaic" writing instruction.

This is a far cry from all the hoopla when the new SAT was announced two years ago. College Board officials described it as a tool that could transform American education, forcing schools to better teach writing. A "great social experiment," Time magazine said.

In an interview, five top College Board officials strongly defended the writing test but sounded more muted about its usefulness. "The SAT essay should not be the primary way kids learn to write," said Wayne Camara, vice president for research. "It's one basic writing skill. If that's all the writing your high school English department is teaching, you have a problem."

They said that while there was a correlation between writing long and a high score, it was not as significant as Dr. Perelman stated. Graders also reward good short essays, they said, but the College Board erred by failing to release such samples to the public. "We will change that," said Chiara Coletti, a vice president.

As to facts not mattering, they said it was a necessary accommodation on such a short, high-pressure test. "We know students don't write well when they're anxious," said Ed Hardin, a College Board test specialist. "We don't want them not to go forward with that little detail. Our attitude is go right ahead with that missing date or fact and readers should be instructed not to count off for that."

Cynics say the new essay is window dressing added to placate California officials who in 2001 were calling the old SAT outmoded and were threatening to stop requiring it. In a recent paper, Edward White of the University of Arizona notes, "As long ago as 1999, in College Board Report No. 99-3, a research team pointed out that 'writing assessments based on a single essay, even those read and scored twice, have extremely low reliability."'

Indeed, the College Board's own advanced placement tests require multiple essays, but officials say that is not possible for the SAT, which at nearly four hours, is being criticized as too long.

"You can't base a lot on one essay," Dr. Camara of the College Board admitted. He said that was why the new SAT writing section also included 49 multiple-choice questions on grammar and style. Multiple-choice counts for 75 percent of the new writing grade; the essay 25 percent. "The multiple-choice makes the writing test valid," he says. In short, the most untrustworthy part of the new SAT writing section is the writing sample.

ON EDUCATION E-mail: edmike@nytimes.com

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