Essay about Emotional Intelligence in the Workplace: Case Study
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How Do You Feel?
"Emotional intelligence" is starting to find its way into companies, offering employees a way to come to terms with their feelings -- and to perform better. But as the field starts to grow, some worry that it could become just another fad.
From: Issue 35| June 2000 | Page 296 By: Tony Schwartz Illustrations by: Cynthia Von Buhler
Appreciation, apprehension, defensiveness, inadequacy, intimidation, resentment. Twenty midlevel executives at American Express Financial Advisors are gathered in a room at a conference center outside Minneapolis. Each has been asked to try to convey a specific emotion -- by reading a particular statement aloud. The challenge for listeners is to figure out which emotion each speaker…show more content…
"We're introducing people to a whole new language."
Most attendees of these emotional-competence workshops are compelled to learn a new language for one simple reason: They're visiting a foreign land. Over the past 50 years, large companies have embraced a business dictum that told workers to check their emotions at the door. A legacy from the days of "The Organization Man" and "The Man in the Gray Flannel Suit," this never-spoken but widely shared policy reflected the sensibility that frowned on employees who brought messy emotions and troubling personal issues to work.
Employees, for their part, complied with that prevailing mind-set. Until recently, the workplace was dominated by male employees -- and most of them were just as eager as their employers were to avoid the ambiguous complications and unexplored terrain of personal feelings.
One notable exception to that tacit pact occurred in the 1970s and early 1980s, when the influence of the human-potential movement prompted a brief corporate romance with such experiential techniques as sensitivity training and encounter groups. But those approaches lacked the rigor to endure. Before long, business got back to business. A backlash set in, and the focus returned to no-nonsense training methods that were highly
CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION
1.1 EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE
1.1.1 CONCEPT OF EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE
The capacity to be aware of one’s emotions, and express them in a balanced manner by regulating those emotions and to handle interpersonal relationships judiciously and empathetically is termed as ‘Emotional Intelligence’.
Th concept of ‘Emotional Intelligence’ includes components like self- awareness, ability to manage moods, motivation, empathy and social skills such as cooperation and leadership.
The five domains of ‘Emotional Intelligence’ identified by Goleman are as:-
– To know your emotions
– To manage your emotion
– To motivate yourself
– To recognize and understand other people’s emotions
– To manage the relationships
1.1.2 NEED FOR EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE
In today’s era or scenario EI is being perceived as the most important element in a person’s success. For example, while comparing IQ and EQ, Goleman suggests that while 20 percent success is contributed by IQ, the remaining 80 percent success is determined by EQ. It is now widely believed that emotions rather than IQ may be the true measure of human intelligence. This is the reason that behavioral scientists are now focusing more on EI. So, the emotional intelligence is important in the following ways:-
1) General Happiness ‘ EI leads to general happiness. For example, people with high EQ are motivated, satisfied, mental peace. People are fully aware, self-control, have balance in life etc. , whereas people with low EQ are frustrated, disappointed, lonely. Depressed etc. Thus, high EQ generates positive feelings which result in general happiness.
2) Rationality in behavior ‘ EI leads to rationality in behavior. Rationality is defined as the capacity for objective action. It is usually characterized by patent behavioral nexus between ends and means. Thus if appropriate means have been chosen to reach desired ends, the behavioral is rational. With high EQ, a person is able to see the situation under which the behavior takes place in right perspective. With such a perspective, the person is able to establish right relationship between ends and means and his behavior tends to be rational. Lack of EI leads to wrong perception of situation and the person interprets the information based on his emotions rather than reality. In fact, the emotional barrier in communication is one of the biggest problems. With the result, the person does not show rational behavior.
3) Fulfilling social objectives ‘ Since human beings live in society, they are not only responsible to themselves but also to the society. Living in the society, a person takes something from it and gives something to it. This something may be physical and psychological forms. In taking and giving process, a person with high EQ displays the same behavior towards others which he expects from them. If such a behavior is reciprocated by others, the behavior becomes gratifying to all the persons concerned. This brings general happiness in the society including family, friendship group and work organization. As against this, a person with low EQ acts with emotions and becomes self-centered. His behavior is often dysfunctional leading to general unhappiness in the society. Thus persons with high HQ are assets of the society while persons with low EQ are liabilities for it.
1.1.3 MODELS OF EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE
1) Ability Model – Salovey and Mayer’s conception of EI strives to define EI within the confines of the standard criteria for a new intelligence. Following their continuing research, their initial definition of EI was revised to “The ability to perceive emotion, integrate emotion to facilitate thought, understand emotions and to regulate emotions to promote personal growth. ‘The ability-based model views emotions as useful sources of information that help one to make sense of and navigate the social environment. The model proposes that individuals vary in their ability to process information of an emotional nature and in their ability to relate emotional processing to a wider cognition. This ability is seen to manifest itself in certain adaptive behaviors. The model claims that EI includes four types of abilities:
‘ Perceiving emotions ‘ the ability to detect and decipher emotions in faces, pictures, voices, and cultural artifacts’including the ability to identify one’s own emotions. Perceiving emotions represents a basic aspect of emotional intelligence, as it makes all other processing of emotional information possible.
1. Using emotions ‘ the ability to harness emotions to facilitate various cognitive activities, such as thinking and problem solving. The emotionally intelligent person can capitalize fully upon his or her changing moods in order to best fit the task at hand.
2. Understanding emotions ‘ the ability to comprehend emotion language and to appreciate complicated relationships among emotions. For example, understanding emotions encompasses the ability to be sensitive to slight variations between emotions, and the ability to recognize and describe how emotions evolve over time.
3. Managing emotions ‘ the ability to regulate emotions in both ourselves and in others. Therefore, the emotionally intelligent person can harness emotions, even negative ones, and manage them to achieve intended goals.
The ability EI model has been criticized in the research for lacking face and predictive validity in the workplace.
The current measure of Mayer and Salovey’s model of EI, the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) is based on a series of emotion-based problem-solving items. Consistent with the model’s claim of EI as a type of intelligence, the test is modeled on ability-based IQ tests. By testing a person’s abilities on each of the four branches of emotional intelligence, it generates scores for each of the branches as well as a total score.
Central to the four-branch model is the idea that EI requires attunement to social norms. Therefore, the MSCEIT is scored in a consensus fashion, with higher scores indicating higher overlap between an individual’s answers and those provided by a worldwide sample of respondents. The MSCEIT can also be expert-scored, so that the amount of overlap is calculated between an individual’s answers and those provided by a group of 21 emotion researchers.
Although promoted as an ability test, the MSCEIT is unlike standard IQ tests in that its items do not have objectively correct responses. Among other challenges, the consensus scoring criterion means that it is impossible to create items (questions) that only a minority of respondents can solve, because, by definition, responses are deemed emotionally “intelligent” only if the majority of the sample has endorsed them. This and other similar problems have led some cognitive ability experts to question the definition of EI as a genuine intelligence.
In a study by F??llesdal, the MSCEIT test results of 111 business leaders were compared with how their employees described their leader. It was found that there were no correlations between a leader’s test results and how he or she was rated by the employees, with regard to empathy, ability to motivate, and leader effectiveness. F??llesdal also criticized the Canadian company Multi-Health Systems, which administers the MSCEIT test. The test contains 141 questions but it was found after publishing the test that 19 of these did not give the expected answers. This has led Multi-Health Systems to remove answers to these 19 questions before scoring, but without stating this officially.
2) Mixed Model – The model introduced by Daniel Goleman focuses on EI as a wide array of competencies and skills that drive leadership performance. Goleman’s model outlines five main EI constructs (for more details see “What Makes A Leader” by Daniel Goleman, best of Harvard Business Review 1998):
1. Self-awareness ‘ the ability to know one’s emotions, strengths, weaknesses, drives, values and goals and recognize their impact on others while using gut feelings to guide decisions.
2. Self-regulation ‘ involves controlling or redirecting one’s disruptive emotions and impulses and adapting to changing circumstances.
3. Social skill ‘ managing relationships to move people in the desired direction
4. Empathy – considering other people’s feelings especially when making decisions
5. Motivation – being driven to achieve for the sake of achievement.
Goleman includes a set of emotional competencies within each construct of EI. Emotional competencies are not innate talents, but rather learned capabilities that must be worked on and can be developed to achieve outstanding performance. Goleman posits that individuals are born with a general emotional intelligence that determines their potential for learning emotional competencies. Goleman’s model of EI has been criticized in the research literature as mere “pop psychology (Mayer, Roberts, & Barsade, 2008)
Two measurement tools are based on the Goleman model:
1. The Emotional Competency Inventory (ECI), which was created in 1999, and the Emotional and Social Competency Inventory (ESCI), a newer edition of the ECI was developed in 2007. The Emotional and Social Competency – University Edition (ESCI-U) is also available. These tools developed by Goleman and Boyatzis provide a behavioral measure of the Emotional and Social competencies.
2. The Emotional Intelligence Appraisal, which was created in 2001 and which can be taken as a self-report or 360-degree assessment.
2) Trait Model – Soviet-born British psychologist Konstantin Vasily Petrides (“K. V. Petrides”) proposed a conceptual distinction between the ability based model and a based model of EI and has been developing the latter over many years in numerous scientific publications. Trait EI is “a constellation of emotional self-perceptions located at the lower levels of personality. In lay terms, trait EI refers to an individual’s self-perceptions of their emotional abilities. This definition of EI encompasses behavioral dispositions and self perceived abilities and is measured by self report as opposed to the ability based model which refers to actual abilities, which have proven highly resistant to scientific measurement. Trait EI should be investigated within a personality framework. An alternative label for the same construct is trait emotional self-efficacy. The trait EI model is general and subsumes the Goleman model discussed above. The conceptualization of EI as a personality trait leads to a construct that lies outside the taxonomy of human cognitive ability. This is an important distinction in as much as it bears directly on the operationalization of the construct and the theories and hypotheses that are formulated about it.
There are many self-report measures of EI, including the EQ-i, the Swinburne University Emotional Intelligence Test (SUEIT), and the Schutte EI model. None of these assess intelligence, abilities, or skills (as their authors often claim), but rather, they are limited measures of trait emotional intelligence. One of the more comprehensive and widely researched measures of this construct is the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (TEIQue), which was specifically designed to measure the construct comprehensively and is available in many languages.
The TEIQue provides an operationalization for the model of Petrides and colleagues that conceptualizes EI in terms of personality. The test encompasses 15 subscales organized under four factors: Well-Being, Self-Control, Emotionality, and Sociability. The psychometric properties of the TEI Que were investigated in a study on a French-speaking population, where it was reported that TEI Que scores were globally normally distributed and reliable.
The researchers also found TEIQue scores were unrelated to nonverbal reasoning (Raven’s matrices), which they interpreted as support for the personality trait view of EI (as opposed to a form of intelligence). As expected, TEIQue scores were positively related to some of the Big Five personality traits (extraversion, agreeableness, openness, conscientiousness) as well as inversely related to others (alexithymia, neuroticism). A number of quantitative genetic studies have been carried out within the trait EI model,which have revealed significant genetic effects and heritabilities for all trait EI scores. Two recent studies (one a meta-analysis) involving direct comparisons of multiple EI tests yielded very favorable results for the TEIQue.
1.1.4 APPLYING EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE AT WORKPLACE
EI has a number of applications in organizations, business and non- business. It can be instrumental in many areas in the work place and can achieve organizational development. On the basis of various researches, psychologists have concluded that in the present fast-changing business environment, one needs more than just brain to run the business. They argue that managers must get in touch with their emotions and feelings for effective decision making and problem solving in business. Some of the immediate benefits of EI is increasing productivity, speeding up adaption to change, developing leadership skills, stimulating creativity and cooperation, responding effectively to competition, encouraging innovative thinking, improving work environment, reducing stress level and frustration, and developing sense of competence.
All these can be achieved by applying EI in the following areas:
1) Filling organizational position ‘ In an organization, various types of position are created. These positions are at different levels of the organization and in different functional areas. While filling the various organizational positions, an attempt is made to match individuals and jobs. Recent emphasis in recruitment and selection process is being put on EI because of its contribution to professional success. Because of this reason, many psychologists have made an attempt to find out the level of EI required for different types of jobs so that there is match between employees and their jobs. Jobs which require high interaction with people like jobs of psychiatrist, human services worker, social worker etc. must be filled by persons having high level of EI.
2) Work Life ‘ It is concerned with the impact of work on people as well as on organizational effectiveness, and the idea of participation in organizational problem solving and decision making. High EI is very relevant for improving the quality of work life. In this respect, EI acts in the following ways:
a) EI stimulates motivation, eases change, reduces stress, improves communication, and enhances rational decision making.
b) It impacts people’s ability to sustain both physical and psychological health.
c) It enables to identify and express feelings in right way.
d) It develops positive thinking towards self and others.
3) Credibility of managers – It is a prerequisite for managerial success. Credibility is built by what one says and does. When there is a difference between what one says and does, credibility gap exists. Credibility of a person is reflected in the following features:
b) Integrity and honesty
4) Leadership Effectiveness ‘ Leadership is a process of influencing and supporting others to work enthusiastically towards achieving desired result. High EI on the part of the person leads to effectiveness. According to Goleman, various experts in leadership development offer their advice based on inference, experience, and instinct and note based on scientific data. A leader with high EI has the following characteristics:-
a) Ability to regulate emotions
b) Ability to analyze emotions
5) Effective Communication ‘ Communication is the process by which people seek to share meaning via the transmission and receipt of symbolic messages. Communication is effective when sender and receiver of the message under the communication process attach the same meaning to it. EI helps in the perceiving the meaning of any message in its correct perspective. EI helps in avoiding such a distortion in communication, thereby making communication effective.
6) Handing Frustration ‘ EI helps in handing Frustration, both at work as well as in day to day life. EI help in choosing the most desirable way of overcoming frustration. The person with high EI tries to rationalize the factors causing frustration and to change the structure of these factors to the extent possible. By engaging in rational behavior, he may try to engage in constructive thinking and behavior rather than the negative aspects of these
7) Conflict Resolution ‘ EI helps in conflict resolution by making people aware why a person is taking a particular stand on an issue. This awareness helps in bringing the parties involved in a conflict to the real issue breaking down the emotional vulnerability. When the parties to conflict do not bring their emotions to the conflict, they are in a position to understand the real issues in the conflict and the conflict is resolved immediately.
1.2 BULLYING AND HARRASSMENT AT WORKPLACE
Workplace bullying occurs when an employee experiences a persistent pattern of mistreatment from others in the workplace that causes harm. Workplace bullying can include such tactics as verbal, nonverbal, psychological, physical abuse and humiliation. This type of aggression is particularly difficult because, unlike the typical forms of school bullying, workplace bullies often operate within the established rules and policies of their organization and their society. Bullying in the workplace is in the majority of cases reported as having been perpetrated by someone in authority over the target. However, bullies can also be peers, and on occasion can be subordinates. Bullying can be covert or overt. It may be missed by superiors or known by many throughout the organization. Negative effects are not limited to the targeted individuals, and may lead to a decline in employee morale and a change in company culture.
Zapf and Gross (2001), define workplace bullying as consistent exposure to persistent, oppressive, offensive, abusive, intimidating, malicious, or insulting behavior by a manager/supervisor or co-worker. Workplace bullying, can be seen as a continual purposeful behavior that sets bullying behavior apart from in-civil treatment (Einarsen, Hoel, Zapf, and Cooper, 2003). As these definitions above suggest along with the current literature, there are many different forms and characteristics which define workplace bullying. Mikkelsen and Einarsen (2002) reported that experiences from workplace bullying can be compared to that of losing a love done due to an unexpected death. The Workplace Bullying Institute, found that results show males are more consistently in the role of the bully at 62%, while females comprise 58% of those targeted.
Workplace bullying can appear in many forms and characteristics.
These forms and characteristics include (Leymann, 1996; Koonin and Green, 2005):
‘Verbal or physical attacks
‘Social isolation and exclusion in the workplace
‘Ridicule and humiliation in front of work colleagues
‘Verbal threats and gestures
‘Assignment of demeaning work tasks
‘Workplace gossip among workers behind a targets back
‘Treated in a condescending manner
‘Receiving ‘silent treatment’
‘Belittling the opinion of others
‘Staring, dirty looks, or other forms of negative eye contact
Reflecting on the characteristics above, an argument could be made for researchers in the field of workplace bullying to narrow the scope relating to which forms and characteristics constitute workplace bullying. One suggestion proposed when narrowing the scope of characteristics, may be for researchers to collaborate and come to a concise consensus as to what forms and characteristics exactly identify the face of workplace bullying. Another recommendation offered, is the Workplace Bullying Institute, located in the United Sates, headed by Dr. Gary and Ruth Namie, could work towards uniting forces with similar organizations, such as those in the United Kingdom. By establishing connections among organizations, this could potentially translate into a significant increase relating to awareness of workplace bullying and also further define what forms and characteristics exactly define workplace bullying. These global organization partnerships for example, could look to sway and exert pressure upon policymakers, which eventually could lead to policies adopted that don’t tolerate workplace bullying.
1.2.2 WORKPLACE BULLYING AND ITS PERVELANCE
As a new decade begins and the exertion of forces such as globalization and the recent global economic crisis loom over society, competition for jobs and in the workplace is at an all-time unprecedented rate. One might look to contribute the rise and prevalence of workplace bullying could perhaps be linked to the aspect of competitiveness among the United States and Western workplace culture (Duffy, 2009). Duffy (2009),believes the ideology centering on competition and being number one has spawned many overly competitive workplaces. According to Duffy (2009), competitiveness as a trait has spawned further traits such as, ruthlessness in organizational workplaces. Not only have these traits developed in organizational culture, but these traits are increasingly being swept into the values of organizations. Expanding on these newly forming traits and values embedded in organizations, further research could explore if bullying incidents have risen over the last number of years due to globalization and the financial crisis. Kearns, McCarthy, and Sheehan (1997), offer that the prevalence of workplace bullying may exist due to when organizations restructure. Organizational restructuring, will thus produce eminent threats of job loss and uncertainty among workers. Kearns, McCarthy, and Sheehan (1997), further argue that organizational restructuring can foster workplace bullying due to the insecurities of employees, due to potential job losses. Apart from the threat of losing one’s job, increasing demands among a worker’s workload, may also produce the potential threat of workplace bullying. Van Heugten (2010),conducted a grounded survey into the impacts and interventions among social workers bullied in the workplace, and found that of the 17 social workers involved in the study (13 women and 4 men), organizations, were identified as the major culprit in permitting workplace bullying to rein supreme.
Psychological harassment is a heterogeneous phenomenon. Each bullying action shows a different frequency, has different determinant motivations (e.g., remove someone from the company, competition for tasks, status, advancement, gain a supervisor’s favour, or play a joke on someone), a variety of consequences, and the phenomenon occurs in different circumstances. From this paper’s standpoint, psychological harassment is first a dynamic linear process with four phases, which is illustrated in Figure 1.
The interaction of three types of antecedents (phase 1) can develop psychological harassment behaviour (phase 2), which creates response from the victim and the organisation (phase 3), and produces three types of effects (phase 4). But, it is also a unilinear process. For instance, the antecedents (phase 1) can directly influence the responses (phase 3) of an individual (e.g., personality) or an organisation (e.g., culture).
For example, the personality of the victim can influence the nature of the individual response, or the culture of the firm can influence the characteristic of the organisational response. In the same way, the antecedents (phase 1) can directly influence the effects (phase 4). For instance, the personality of the victim can influence the psychological harassment health effects.
Figure: Model of Psychological Harassment Process
CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Goleman (1996) have also stated that emotional intelligence increases with age and it can be learned, cultivated and increased in adulthood. In a series of longitudinal studies, it was shown that people can change their EI competencies over two to five years (Boyatzis, 2000).
Mayer et al. (2000) also showed with a series of studies that emotional intelligence increased with age and experience which qualifies it as an ability rather than a personality trait. Wong and Law (2002) working with different samples have found that, age is positively correlated with emotional intelligence across different job situations.
Kafetsios (2004) had reported in his study among 239 adults aged between 19-66 years, that older participants scored higher on three out of four branches of EI i.e. facilitation, understanding and management. This study supports the view that emotional intelligence develops with age.
Srivastava and Bharamanaikar (2004) concluded from their study among the sample of 291 Indian army officers regarding the relationship between EI and their age, that EI had increased with age.
Van Rooy, Alonso and Viswesvaran (2005) have made a study in which a common measure of emotional intelligence was administered to 275 participants. (216 female) to examine how different groups score on a test of EI differences were compared for age. Results indicated that emotional intelligence scores tended to increase with age. Thingujam and Ram (2000) in their attempt of Indian adaptation of Emotional Intelligence Scale (Schutte et al, 1998) had developed Indian norms (N=811) for males and females separately and found that women were significantly scoring higher than men. Similarly, Mohanty and Devi. L (2010) have revealed in their study on gender differences among EI (N=60) that girls are more optimistic and well aware of their feelings in comparison to boys. Girls are more aware and understand their own feelings (Components of EI) than boys.
Brief and Weiss (2002) proposed that while firms can impact on one’s feelings, thoughts and actions, individual’s feelings, thoughts and actions likewise can impress the enterprise which they are employed. Indeed, work environment is an emotion-eliciting place; therefore individuals are required to employ “emotional labor”.
Hochschild (1983) identified emotional labor as “the management of feeling to create a publicly observable facial and bodily display for a wage”. Certainly, emotion in the organisation is such a communicable phenomenon that impact on other workers’ emotions. Sanchez-Burks and Huy (2007) claimed that due to emotional contagion which is an automatic, non-conscious psychological process, people experiment shared thrills. In other words, interaction in the workplace causes spreading or transferring thrills from an individual to others (Eriksson, 2004). Goleman et al. (2001) stated that when the group is more uninterrupted, emotions shared are stronger.
Al-Karim Samnani (2012) destabilizes the functionalist approach by examining the workplace bullying literature through three alternative paradigms, namely, interpretivism, critical management theory, and postmodernism. This provides an illustration of the different ways in which workplace bullying can be perceived, understood, and researched. Moreover, because alternative paradigmatic lenses draw upon varying theoretical and methodological approaches, paradigmatic analysis can offer a more complete and comprehensive understanding of the phenomenon. The author uses these lenses to ground workplace bullying in paradigmatically driven theoretical frameworks, while using these theoretical frameworks to propose research questions that can direct us toward gaining a more composite body of scholarship.
Lori K.La Civita (1997) in the article said that many organizations have begun to understand the need to create cultures and climates that maximize the potential of people working in these organizations. The people will provide the creativity and initiative to be successful, especially in an environment that values all members and one that reduces abuse and ineffective human interactions. By making emotional intelligence a priority, the implementation of human resource functions will allow organizations to show that they mean what they say when referring to employees as their most important asset. When there is zero tolerance for workplace bullying and there is a commitment to provide an environment that encourages, supports and reinforces the self-directed development process of emotional intelligence competencies, bullying can be stopped. There is no place in the workplace for the personalization and conflict over disagreements and different points of view. Differences can stimulate learning and new solutions when they are considered with respect and contemplation. Bullying shuts down open discussion, creativity, innovation, and a sense of worth. Organizational leaders must recognize and stop this form of aggression.
Di Martino, et al. (2003) note the assessment of the total costs of psychological harassment to society is made more difficult by the fact that it is not possible to estimate such costs by simply adding up all the individual costs and all the organizational costs. However, several consequences of bullying may translate into an economic burden for society. Absenteeism costs arising from long term illness, premature retirement on the grounds of ill health, long term unemployment and welfare dependency, premature and unplanned loss of productive employees (thus depriving the workforce of skills and talents and affecting overall national productivity), economic burden for personal care is passed on to family and friends are examples of societal costs.
Hallberg and Strandmark (2006) explored the health consequences of workplace bullying with help of a core category labelled that they remaining marked for life. By this meant that adult bullying is perceived by its victim as a severe psychological trauma or a traumatic life event.
Joan Acker (1990) argues that workers, though seemingly gender neutral, are actually framed as inherently male. Those perceived as solely committed to paid employment (historically, men) are viewed by others as naturally more deserving of workplace responsibility and authority. Women, in contrast, still retain primary responsibility for childrearing, housework, and other familial responsibilities. Acker argues that women’s bodies, in the context of paid employment, are thus ‘suspect, stigmatized, and used as grounds for control and exclusion’.
Hallberg & Strandmark (2006) explored the health consequences of workplace bullying with help of a core category labelled that they remaining marked for life. By this meant that adult bullying is perceived by its victims as a severe psychological trauma or a traumatic life event. The core category contained five additional categories; 1) feeling guilt, shame and diminishing self-esteem, 2) developing symptoms and reactions, 3) getting limited space for action, 4) working through the course of events, and 5) trying to obtain redress. Bullying included the spreading of rumours and repeated insults aimed at changing the image of the bullied person negatively, resulting in feelings of guilt, shame and diminishing self-esteem in the exposed person. Physical and psychosomatic symptoms gradually emerged (developing symptoms and reactions) and medical treatment and sick listing often follow.
Vartia (2001) pointed out that everyone involved in the process of bullying in the workplace is negatively affected. Generalized self-efficacy seemed to work as a moderator between the exposure of bullying and mental health problems.
Ms Hirigoyens book triggered a new collective awareness of the phenomenon of moral harassment at work. Associations for combatting moral harassment were founded and moral harassment at work became an issue in public debate. It defined moral harassment as all repeated actions aimed at degrading the human, relational, or material working conditions of one or more victims, in such a way as to compromise their rights and dignity, potentially having a serious impact on their health and jeopardising their career prospects.
Catharine MacKinnon (1979) was among the first to argue that sexual harassment should qualify as a form of sex discrimination by linking the phenomenon to gender inequality and patriarchy.
Jones’ (2000) characterization of institutional racism, ‘differential access to the goods, services, and opportunities of society’ (p. 1212), can be applied to the characterization of institutional workplace injustice. The injustice is ‘normative, sometimes legalized, and often manifests as inherited disadvantage,’ and ‘structural, having been codified in our institutions of custom, practice, and law, so there need not be an identifiable perpetrator’.
MacCann, Matthews, Zeidner, & Roberts (2003) have provided an excellent review of the three major measures of Emotional Intelligence, which makes a duplication of their work in this paper unnecessary. What will be presented here is intended as a brief overview/summary of the available information on measures of Emotional Intelligence. This summary will cover each measure separately, referring to the definition of Emotional Intelligence, reliability, validity, and intended population for each measure.
Therefore, the rising testimony of this emotional side of work exhibits one of the fundamental motives of growth makes it worth looking into the concept of emotional intelligence (EI).
Indeed, emotional intelligence plays a considerable role in the workplace. Within the past 30 years research investigating factors that contribute to success in workplace have resulted in distinguishing factors that are affiliated to workplace intelligence.
CHAPTER 3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The research aims to study the impact of emotional intelligence on the ability to maintain work- life balance. Ideally, employees with high emotional quotient (EQ) would be able to manage their personal and professional lives in a more balanced way than those employees having a low EQ. To test this, EQ and work-life would be measured of various employees using a standardized questionnaire.
3.2 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
‘ To measure emotional intelligence
‘ To measure bullying and harassment.
‘ To study the impact of emotional intelligence on bullying and harassment.
3.3 MAJOR HYPOTHESES
HA: There is a significant relationship between emotional intelligence and bullying and harassment.
H0: There is no significant relationship between emotional intelligence and bullying and harassment.
3.4 RESEARCH DESIGN
The research type is Descriptive research as it deals with description of phenomena or characteristics associated with the subject population i.e. who, what, when, where and how of a topic. However, to start with, the research is exploratory in nature which ultimately gets converted into a descriptive research.
A survey was conducted on employees (managerial level) in various companies under IT sector using two separate questionnaires on emotional intelligence and work-life balance.
Sample size: 100
Sampling technique: Convenience sampling
3.6 DATA COLLECTION
The methodology of this project consists of collection of both primary and secondary data.
Primary data ‘ Primary data gathered from the employee’s responses in various companies belonging to automobile sector
Secondary data: The secondary data was collected through journals, websites, job portals, manuals and books.